By M. Kirk. Westminster Theological Seminary.
The analysis of videos of your group at work is also a task which would require the expertise of someone from a teaching unit discount viagra extra dosage 150mg erectile dysfunction at 55. WHEN THINGS GO WRONG You may encounter a variety of difficulties in your group sessions order viagra extra dosage 150 mg free shipping medicare approved erectile dysfunction pump. For example, while you might decide to ignore a sleeping student or an amorous couple in a lecture class, providing it was not disruptive, it would be impossible to do so in a small group. An authoritarian approach would 51 almost certainly destroy any chance of establishing the co- operative climate we believe to be essential. It is generally more appropriate to raise the problem with the group and ask them for their help with a solution. One of your main roles as a group leader is to be sensitive to the group and the individuals within it. Research has identified a number of difficulties that students commonly experience. Understanding the conventions of group work and acceptable models of behaviour. They tend to be due to genuine confusion on the part of students combined with a fear of exposing their ignorance in front of the teacher and their peers. It is therefore essential for you to clarify the purpose of the group and the way in which students are to enter into the discussion. Their previous experience of small group sessions or ward teaching might lead them to see the occasion as only a threatening question and answer session. They must learn that ignorance is a relative term and that their degree of ignorance must be recognised and explored before effective learning can begin. A will- ingness by the teacher to admit ignorance and demon- strate an appropriate way of dealing with it will be very reassuring to many students. Confusion in the students’ minds about how they are being assessed can also cause difficulties. Generally speaking, assessing contributions to discussion is inhibiting and should be avoided. If you do not have discretion in this matter then at least make it quite clear what criteria you are looking for in your assessment. Should you be able to determine your own assessment policy then the following are worth considering: Require attendance at all (or a specified proportion of) group meetings as a prerequisite. A discussion with the group about how they think things are going or the administration of a short questionnaire are ways of seeking feedback. Be sensitive to the emotional responses of the group and to the behaviour of individual students. The book by Tiberius is a useful source of additional advice on such issues. GUIDED READING For a wide-ranging discussion of the purposes and techniques of small group teaching we suggest you turn to the collection of papers edited by D. Bligh: Teach Thinking by Discussion, SRHE/NFER, Nelson, Guildford, UK 1986. This monograph also provides a good introduc- tion to the research literature on small groups. Another excellent guide, to both the theory and the practice of group work, is D. However, most medical teachers, at some time, will wish to make a presentation at a scientific meeting. There are many obvious similarities between giving a lecture and presenting a paper. There are also significant differences which may not be quite so obvious which made us feel that this chapter might be appreciated. Poster sessions are growing in popularity at many national and international meetings as an alternative to the formal presentation of papers. We have, therefore, included a short segment on the preparation of a conference poster. PRESENTING A PAPER Though much of the advice given in the chapter on lecturing is just as relevant in this section, the aims of a scientific meeting or conference are different enough to warrant separate consideration. If you are in the position to give a paper it is certain that you will have a lot to say, far more in fact than can possibly be delivered in such a short time. You will also be caught in the difficult situation of having many of the audience unfamiliar with the details of your area of interest, some of the audience knowing consider- ably more than you do about the area, and all of the audience likely to be critical of the content and presenta- tion.
Pathophysiologically generic viagra extra dosage 120 mg overnight delivery erectile dysfunction drugs walgreens, hemiballismus is thought to result from reduced conduction through the direct pathway within the basal gan- glia-thalamo-cortical motor circuit (as are other hyperkinetic involun- tary movements cheap 200mg viagra extra dosage free shipping erectile dysfunction vascular causes, such as choreoathetosis). Removal of excitation from the globus pallidus following damage to the efferent subthalamic-pall- idal pathways disinhibits the ventral anterior and ventral lateral thala- mic nuclei which receive pallidal projections and which in turn project to the motor cortex. Hemiballismus of vascular origin usually improves spontaneously, but drug treatment with neuroleptics (haloperidol, pimozide, sulpiride) may be helpful. Other drugs which are sometimes helpful include tetra- benazine, reserpine, clonazepam, clozapine, and sodium valproate. Movement disorders following lesions of the thalamus or subthalamic region. Movement Disorders 1994; 9: 493-507 - 148 - Hemifacial Spasm H Martin JP. It may replace hemiballismus during recovery from a contralateral subthalamic lesion. Cross References Chorea, Choreoathetosis; Hemiballismus Hemidystonia Hemidystonia is dystonia affecting the whole of one side of the body, a pattern which mandates structural brain imaging because of the chance of finding a causative structural lesion (vascular, neoplastic), which is greater than with other patterns of dystonia (focal, segmental, multifocal, generalized). Such a lesion most often affects the con- tralateral putamen or its afferent or efferent connections. Brain 1985; 108: 461-483 Cross References Dystonia Hemifacial Atrophy Hemifacial atrophy is thinning of subcutaneous tissues on one side of the face; it may also involve muscle and bone (causing enophthalmos), and sometimes brain, in which case neurological features (hemiparesis, hemianopia, focal seizures, cognitive impairment) may also be present. The clinical heterogeneity of hemifacial atrophy probably reflects pathogenetic heterogeneity. The syndrome, sometimes referred to as Parry-Romberg syndrome, may result from maldevelopment of auto- nomic innervation or vascular supply, or as an acquired feature fol- lowing trauma, or a consequence of linear scleroderma (morphea), in which case a coup de sabre may be seen. Advances in Clinical Neuroscience & Rehabilitation 2004; 4(3): 38-39 Larner AJ, Bennison DP. Some observations on the aetiology of hemi- facial atrophy (“Parry-Romberg syndrome”). Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 1993; 56: 1035-1036 Cross References Coup de sabre; Enophthalmos; Hemianopia; Hemiparesis Hemifacial Spasm Hemifacial spasm is an involuntary dyskinetic (not dystonic) move- ment disorder consisting of painless contractions of muscles on one - 149 - H Hemiinattention side of the face, sometimes triggered by eating or speaking, and exac- erbated by fatigue or emotion. The movements give a twitching appearance to the eye or side of the mouth, sometimes described as a pulling sensation. Patients often find this embarrassing because it attracts the attention of others. Paradoxical elevation of the eyebrow as orbicularis oris con- tracts and the eye closes may be seen (Babinski’s “other sign”). Hemifacial spasm may be idiopathic, or associated with neurovas- cular compression of the facial (VII) nerve, usually at the root entry zone, often by a tortuous anterior or posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Very rarely, contralateral (false-localizing ) pos- terior fossa lesions have been associated with hemifacial spasm, sug- gesting that kinking or distortion of the nerve, rather than direct compression, may be of pathogenetic importance. For idio- pathic hemifacial spasm, or patients declining surgery, botulinum toxin injections are the treatment of choice. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 1998; 73: 67-71 Cross References Babinski’s sign (2); Bell’s palsy; Dyskinesia; “False-localizng signs” Hemiinattention - see NEGLECT Hemimicropsia - see MICROPSIA Hemineglect - see NEGLECT Hemiparesis Hemiparesis is a weakness affecting one side of the body, less severe than a hemiplegia. Characteristically this affects the extensor mus- cles of the upper limb more than flexors, and the flexors of the leg more than extensors (“pyramidal” distribution of weakness), pro- ducing the classic hemiparetic/hemiplegic posture with flexed arm and extended leg, the latter permitting standing and a circumduct- ing gait. Hemiparesis results from damage (most usually vascular) to the corticospinal pathways anywhere from motor cortex to the cervical spine. Accompanying signs may give clues as to localization, the main possibilities being hemisphere, brainstem, or cervical cord. Hemisphere lesions may also cause hemisensory impairment, hemi- - 150 - Hemiplegia Cruciata H anopia, aphasia, agnosia or apraxia; headache, and incomplete unilat- eral ptosis, may sometimes feature. Spatial neglect, with or without anosognosia, may also occur, particularly with right-sided lesions pro- ducing a left hemiparesis. Pure motor hemiparesis may be seen with lesions of the internal capsule, corona radiata, and basal pons (lacu- nar/small deep infarct), in which case the face and arm are affected more than the leg; such facio-brachial predominance may also be seen with cortico-subcortical lesions laterally placed on the contralateral hemisphere. Crural predominance suggests a contralateral paracentral cortical lesion or one of the lacunar syndromes. Brainstem lesions may produce diplopia, ophthalmoplegia, nys- tagmus, ataxia, and crossed facial sensory loss or weakness in addition to hemiparesis (“alternating hemiplegia”). Hemiparesis is most usually a consequence of a vascular event (cerebral infarction). Tumor may cause a progressive hemiparesis (although meningiomas may produce transient “stroke-like” events).