By M. Achmed. Texas State University. 2018.
A little gushing discount levitra soft 20mg line erectile dysfunction treatment shots, but a stimu- lating look at the creative aspects of writing generic levitra soft 20mg with mastercard erectile dysfunction treatment wikipedia. There are all kinds of non-linear creative thinking, and the technique of mindmapping, as pioneered by Tony Buzan, is one of the most developed. The author has chosen a wide range of comments, from one-liners to longer pieces, that are written by writers on writing. It does not follow that they are doing it in the most effective way (see false feedback loop). Proofreading This is the task of reading a piece of writing that is about to be published, and identifying any errors that may have crept in during the writing and editing processes. The mistake that authors sometimes make is believing this is an opportunity for them to improve what they have written. It is too late for that, and any attempts to overturn previous technical editing will be distracting and dangerous – risking more serious mistakes. Find yourself a quiet corner so that you can give the proof your full attention. Watch particularly for four types: • misspellings of names of people or their titles; • numbers that are inconsistent within the copy (i. Some say that you should read each proof twice, once for major errors and another for minor ones of spelling and punctuation. Others recommend reading backwards, so that you do not become distracted by the meaning. If possible, enlist the help of other readers: a fresh pair of eyes is far more likely to spot errors that you put there in the first place. Some people are better than others at proofreading: if you do find someone good at the task, cherish them. Propaganda A derogatory term used to dismiss a piece of writing that we believe upholds a viewpoint with which we do not 104 PROPAGANDA agree. When we speak we make use of a wide range of visual cues, such as eye contact and stifled yawns, to help us adjust to our audience and put our message across. When we write, we lose sight of the audience, and spend large amounts of time putting on (an unnecessary) posh overcoat. Whenever you come across a particularly impenetrable piece of prose that you have written, apply the pub test: how would you have explained this to your target reader, face to face? This invariably produces a sentence that is simpler and easier to understand. Once this has been agreed, all kinds of other arrangements have to be made, such as reserving time on the printing press, and summoning extra staff to help with the distribution. Postponing these arrangements is tiresome and costly, which is why we need deadlines. Publication planning Many pharmaceutical organizations now spend time and money working out what papers they need to have published where and by when. But it is usually less bad than many people think (see false feedback loop). But these articles are often badly written and hard to read, few take-home messages seem to get through (see CF Kellett et al. Poor recall performance of journal-browsing doctors, Lancet August 17, 1996), and it can take years for findings to be trans- lated into action. In fact the evidence of market research (and commercial success) shows that these publications, which are written in simpler English, are well read and acted upon. This leaves anyone writing for doctors having to choose: do they follow the style of the journal, and risk being ignored, or follow the style of the medical newspaper, and risk being undervalued? Punctuation Marks that make our writing easier to read (see colons; commas; dashes; exclamation marks; full stops; hyphens; quotation marks; semicolons). Puns Using a word with two meanings and making people smile (or even laugh a little). Beware overuse: The write stuff (as a headline on articles about writing courses) has become a tedious cliché. Putting on the posh overcoat It is hard to escape the feeling that when we write we need to impress (see English teachers). There are clear exceptions – when writing for doctors who believe that writing is of value only when they have to struggle over its meaning.
Studies in patients 483 one normal subject (b) order levitra soft 20mg visa impotence emotional causes, but much more profound of the same magnitude as in normal subjects cheap levitra soft 20 mg with mastercard erectile dysfunction self test, when on the affected side than on the unaffected side of using a single shock (Fig. These dence against increased corticospinal activation of results are representative of those in the control and inhibitory interneurones (a possibility that would patientgroups;themeanvaluesofEMGsuppression be unlikely, given the corticospinal lesion). In fact, elicited by the train were not different for the right the corticospinal lesion is more likely to have caused and left sides of healthy controls and the unaffected decreasedcorticospinaldriveonfeedbackinhibitory side of the patients. The greater suppression observed on greater EMG suppression on the affected side of the affected side with the train could thus be the patients(Fig. Theasymmetryseenwith net result of two opposing effects: decreased cor- the train in stroke patients contrasts with the sym- ticospinal drive on inhibitory interneurones, and metry of the weak suppression elicited by single agreater component of the descending command volleys (0. MEP during ramp contractions Evidence for disfacilitation Support for a greater component of the descend- In three patients, it was possible to compare the ingcommandrelayedthroughthepropriospinalsys- modulationoftheon-goingEMG,theMEPandtheH tem is provided by the asymmetry found in stroke reﬂexatthetimeoftheirﬁrsttest,whentheasymme- patients between the musculo-cutaneous facilita- try of the EMG suppression was prominent. On the tion of the MEP evoked in the FCR by TMS at the unaffected side, the cutaneous volleys produced, as onset of a ramp task involving co-contraction of FCR in normal subjects, a suppression of the EMG and of and biceps: the facilitation was signiﬁcantly larger the MEP, with little change in the H reﬂex. There affected side, the on-going EMG and the MEP were is therefore evidence from another laboratory, using suppressed more than the H reﬂex. The asymmetry adifferenttechnique,forincreasedexcitationofpro- of the two former responses was signiﬁcantly greater priospinalneuronesduringvoluntarycontractionin than the asymmetry of the H reﬂex, and this argues stroke patients. Possible mechanisms underlying increased excitation of the propriospinal neurones during voluntary contraction Increased excitation of propriospinal neurones and recovery from hemiplegia Increased excitation could result from unmasking and/or reorganisation of projections from the ipsi- Evidence for a greater component of the lateral undamaged hemisphere. It has been sug- descending command relayed through the gested that the residual motor capacity in patients propriospinal system with poor recovery could involve such projections. Greater suppression of the on-going EMG by cuta- Data obtained with TMS of the ipsilateral undam- neous volleys in patients with poor recovery may agedhemisphereinpatientswithpoorrecoveryfrom result from more of the descending command pass- stroke are consistent with this view. Indeed, MEPs ing through the propriospinal relay or from an are more likely to be elicited by stimulation of the increase in the excitatory corticospinal drive to feed- undamaged hemisphere in the ipsilateral affected back inhibitory interneurones. However, the ﬁnding arm and have a lower threshold than in normal sub- that the cutaneous inhibition was symmetrical, and jects (Benecke, Meyer & Freund, 1991;Turton et al. A good candidate could be the connections ing command by propriospinal neurones could be from the ipsilateral premotor cortex to the reticu- merely a transient compensatory response follow- lar formation, which, in turn, gives rise to bilateral ingtheinterruptionofthecontralateralcorticospinal reticulospinal projections (Benecke, Meyer & Fre- pathway by the lesion. Lundberg, 1999) apply to humans, there sphere, with extension and relocation of the upper wouldbepotentreticulospinalprojectionsontopro- limb area (see Hallett, 2001). Conclusions There is evidence for more of the descending com- Synkinetic movements mand passing through the propriospinal relay in patientswithpoorrecoveryfromstroke. Theﬁndings The possibility that a greater part of the descending are consistent with transiently greater dependence command for movement is relayed through the pro- on descending (possibly reticulospinal) projections priospinal system in patients with poor recovery is onto propriospinal neurones, due to synaptic re- supported by the fact that such patients have invol- inforcement or unmasking and/or reorganisation of untary synkinetic movements. The greater reliance on the rones have divergent projections onto motoneu- propriospinalsystemforthemovementrepertoireof rones of muscles operating at different joints in the the upper limb would be accompanied by synkinetic cat (Alstermark et al. Greater cutaneous suppression Changes throughout motor recovery of the on-going EMG Asymmetry between the cutaneous suppression of Early in the illness, the cutaneous suppression pro- the on-going EMG on the affected and unaffected duced by brief trains of stimuli was signiﬁcantly sides was observed in patients with poor recovery of increased (with respect to normal subjects) on both wrist extension, but not in those with good recovery sides, despite marked asymmetry in the clinical fea- at the time of their ﬁrst test (Fig. This ﬁnding suggests the amount of EMG suppression and parkinsonian thatthetake-overofthetransmissionofthedescend- symptoms, before or after levodopa treatment. Conclusions 485 Increased excitation of propriospinal neurones Role of propriospinal transmission Theincreasedcutaneousafferentsuppressionofon- of a part of the descending command going EMG elicited by a train of three shocks was not The major role of the cervical propriospinal system paralleled by an increase in the suppression elicited is to allow integration of the descending motor com- by a single shock. Thus, here again, this suggests that mand en route to the motoneurones with afferent the increased cutaneous suppression was due not feedback from the moving limb at a premotoneu- to increased cortical drive on feedback inhibitory ronallevel. Thedescendingcommandformovement interneurones, but rather to increased excitation is focused on propriospinal neurones that receive of propriospinal neurones transmitting a compo- excitatory afferent feedback from the contract- nent of the descending command (cf. This ing muscle, and peripheral excitatory inputs may increased excitation of propriospinal neurones was therebyprovideasafetyfactorforpropriospinalneu- not directly related to the motor disability, since the rones which are already depolarised by on-going increased EMG suppression: (i) was not correlated descending activity. Muscle inhibitory projections with the severity of symptoms; (ii) was symmetrical may have two roles: (i) adjustment of the force of whereas the symptoms were clearly asymmetrical; the movement; and (ii) lateral inhibition, preventing (iii) returned to control level in the more severe activationofpropriospinalneuronesnotrequiredfor patients; and (iv) was not modiﬁed by levodopa the movement. Because of the presumably prewired Increasedtransmissionofthedescendingcommand connections of each subset of propriospinal neu- throughpropriospinalneuronesmightreﬂectacom- rones with the different motoneurones involved in a pensatorymechanismintendedtomodifythedefec- multi-jointmovement,integrationatapremotoneu- tive command, e. Finally, smooth movement execution and/or to overcome the even distribution of propriospinally mediated the difﬁculty of these patients in relaxing. The ﬁnd- descending excitation to early- and late-recruited ing that this presumed mechanism no longer oper- motoneurones might be of importance in rapid ated on the more affected side of the more advanced movements. With recovery, 486 Cervical propriospinal system less of the descending command need be mediated movements to grasp a morsel of food using the com- through propriospinal neurones, and their excitabil- mand transmitted by the propriospinal system.
Experimental produced by Ia and descending inputs: a test for Brain Research cheap levitra soft 20mg medicare approved erectile dysfunction pump, 102 cheap levitra soft 20mg with amex zopiclone impotence, 350–8. Conditioning effect in single human motoneurones: a new Pierrot-Deseilligny, E. Evidence favouring presynaptic inhi- dependent hyperpolarisation of human motor axons bition of Ia ﬁbres due to the activation of group III tendon produced by natural activity. Contribution of presynaptic inhibition of the soleus H reﬂex is temporarily peripheral afferents to the activation of the soleus muscle reduced by cortical stimulation in human subjects. Vibration-induced changes in EMG during human maneuver with segmental presynaptic inhibition. Pre- of muscle spindle discharge on the human H reﬂex and synaptic inhibition, EPSP amplitude, and motor-unit type the monosynaptic reﬂex in the cat. Cutaneous afferents are responsible for a wide range of sensations, but most are also capable of modula- Withdrawal responses ting motor behaviour through spinal, supraspinal Theseresponseshaveaspinalpathwayandarecom- and transcortical pathways. There is a tendency for monly but erroneously thought to involve a ﬂexor clinicians to group all cutaneous afferents together, synergy activated by a nociceptive stimulus. With- and this creates confusion, leads to the usage of dif- drawal reﬂexes have a speciﬁc organisation, are rea- ferent terms for the same function and the same sonablystereotyped,andareelicitedbyconvergence term for different functions, and makes the systems of noxious and tactile stimuli (cf. A thesis of this ﬂexion reﬂex, the corresponding pathways were book, addressed in many chapters, is that cutaneous named FRA (ﬂexor reﬂex afferent) pathways. The nociceptive withdrawal vant pathways is inhibited by activation of pathways (ﬂexion) reﬂex was subsequently shown to be poly- mediating short-latency FRA reﬂexes. The organisa- synaptic (for references, see Hunt & Perl, 1960), and tionoflong-latencyFRApathwayssuggeststhatthey this was conﬁrmed by intracellular recordings from play a role in the generation of locomotor stepping motoneurones (R. Eccles & Lundberg, 1959;Holmqvist & The above responses can be generated by stimu- Lundberg, 1961). Further investigations showed that lating cutaneous afferents in isolation. In addition, administration of DOPA in the acute spinal cat cutaneous afferents contribute to shaping the motor suppressed short-latency FRA responses, releasing output through their extensive convergence on transmission in a long-latency FRA pathway, which interneurones interposed in pathways fed by mus- had a half-centre organisation, capable of gener- cleafferentsorcorticospinalvolleys(cf. Chapters3–7 ating alternating activation of extensors and ﬂexors and 10), and onto PAD interneurones mediat- (Jankowska et al. However, when cutaneous and FRA volleys elicit different effects in Initial ﬁndings the same motoneurone(s), there is evidence for a specialised cutaneous pathway. Investigations of spinal reﬂexes received impetus from the work of Sherrington (1906, 1910)onthe Reﬂexes elicited by low-threshold nociceptive ﬂexion reﬂex. He showed that, in the cutaneous afferents spinalised decerebrate animal, noxious skin stim- The toe extensor reﬂex of the cat uli excite ﬂexors and inhibit extensors in the ipsilat- eral hindlimb (the ﬂexion reﬂex), accompanied by This is the most clear-cut example of a specialised excitation of extensors and inhibition of ﬂexors in cutaneous reﬂex. Gentle pressure on the central the contralateral limb (the crossed extension reﬂex). The ensuing movement gives rise to an impulse ﬂow in FRA which is channelled back into the reﬂex already activated, so that its activity is reinforced and prolonged (see p. From data in Engberg (1964)(a), and modiﬁed from Schouenborg (2002)(b), Lundberg (1973, 1979)((c), (d)), and Baldissera, Hultborn & Illert (1981)(e), with permission. Background from animal experiments 387 response in the plantar ﬂexors of the toes (i. This reﬂex is due ingmotoneurones,presumablydesignedfordiscrete to the activation of slowly adapting mechanorecep- movementsofthedifferentdigits(Sasakietal. This extensor activation Cutaneousreﬂexesduringlocomotionarealsomedi- is appropriate to avoid the stimulus. Inchronicspinal speciﬁc relationship between receptive ﬁeld, acti- cats walking on a treadmill, tactile stimuli applied to vated muscle(s) and the resulting reﬂex withdrawal thedorsumofthepawevokeshort-latencyresponses has been revealed both in the rat and the cat (for involving the ﬂexors during the swing phase, but review, see Schouenborg, 2002). The responses in ate cutaneous receptive ﬁeld corresponding to the knee muscles are stronger and have shorter laten- skin area withdrawn by contraction of the partic- cies than those of ankle and hip muscles. This is illustrated for the recep- ternandtimingofactivation(i)distinguishtheabove tive ﬁelds for withdrawal reﬂexes involving the pero- responses from FRA-induced responses, which are neus longus, tibialis anterior and biceps of the cat in stereotyped and synchronous in all ﬂexors, and (ii) Fig. Isolatedkneeﬂexion (ii) Nociceptors and, to a lesser extent, slowly early in swing is sufﬁcient to overcome the obstacle adapting low-threshold mechanoreceptors provide touched by the pad dorsum, whereas the increased the afferent input to withdrawal reﬂex pathways. Projections to motoneurones innervating Reﬂexes in the forelimb slow- and fast-twitch motor units In the forelimb of the cat, low-threshold cutaneous A differentiation between FRA pathways and spe- afferents project to segmental interneurones inter- cialised cutaneous pathways has also been pos- posed in proprioceptive pathways (cf. Introduction, sible in the motoneurones innervating fast-twitch and Hongo et al.
Ideally 20mg levitra soft with amex erectile dysfunction diabetes permanent, primary pre- • The most effective measures for preventing dyslipidemia vention begins in childhood with healthful eating habits and atherosclerosis are those related to a healthful lifestyle (ie generic 20mg levitra soft with mastercard most effective erectile dysfunction pills, avoiding excessive fats, meat, and dairy products; (diet low in cholesterol and saturated fats, weight control, obtaining adequate amounts of all nutrients, including exercise). However, changing habits to a more sirability of lowering high blood lipid levels before seri- healthful lifestyle is helpful at any time, before or after ous cardiovascular diseases develop. Weight loss often reduces Evaluation blood lipids and lipoproteins to a normal range. Chang- ing habits is difﬁcult for most people, even those with se- • Observe for decreased blood levels of total and low- vere symptoms. Collateral circulation involves use • Observe and interview regarding compliance with in- of secondary vessels in response to tissue ischemia re- structions for drug, diet, and other therapeutic measures. Those with peripheral arterial in- sufﬁciency usually can increase exercise tolerance by walking regularly. Distances should be determined by PRINCIPLES OF THERAPY occurrence of pain and must be individualized. Elevating the head of the bed and having the legs Drug selection is based on the type of dyslipidemia and its horizontal or dependent may help. For single-drug therapy to lower cholesterol, a statin is usually contraindicated unless edema is present or is preferred. To lower triglyc- • Although drug therapy is being increasingly used to pre- erides, gemﬁbrozil or niacin may be used. Gemﬁbrozil is usu- vent or manage atherosclerotic disorders, a major thera- ally preferred for people with diabetes because niacin peutic option for management of occlusive vascular increases blood sugar. Thus, severe angina pectoris is rational because the drugs act by different mechanisms. In may be relieved by a coronary artery bypass procedure general, a statin and a bile acid sequestrant or niacin and a that detours blood ﬂow around occluded vessels. This pro- bile acid sequestrant are the most effective combinations in cedure also may be done after a myocardial infarction. A ﬁbrate or niacin may The goal is to prevent infarction or reinfarction. TIAs may be included when a goal of therapy is to increase levels be relieved by carotid endarterectomy; the goal is to pre- of HDL cholesterol. Peripheral arterial insufﬁciency may be re- should be avoided because of increased risks of severe my- lieved by aortofemoral, femoropopliteal, or other bypass opathy, and a niacin–statin combination increases the risks of grafts that detour around occluded vessels. The nursing role in relation to these procedures is to Use in Children provide excellent preoperative and postoperative nursing care to promote healing, prevent infection, maintain pa- Dyslipidemia occurs in children and may lead to atheroscle- tency of grafts, and help the client to achieve optimum rotic cardiovascular disease, including myocardial infarction, function. Dyslipidemia is diagnosed with total 858 SECTION 9 DRUGS AFFECTING THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM CLIENT TEACHING GUIDELINES Dyslipidemic Drugs General Considerations ✔ Atorvastatin and other statin-type dyslipidemic drugs ✔ Heart and blood vessel disease causes a great deal of may increase sensitivity to sunlight. The basic problem is usually posure to the sun, use sunscreens, and wear protective atherosclerosis, in which the arteries are partly blocked by clothing. Cholesterol, a waxy substance made ✔ Gemﬁbrozil may cause dizziness or blurred vision and in the liver, is necessary for normal body functioning. How- should be used cautiously while driving or performing ever, excessive amounts in the blood increase the likeli- other tasks that require alertness, coordination, or physi- hood of having a heart attack, stroke, or leg pain from cal dexterity. Notify a health care provider if these lipoprotein [LDL] or bad) attaches to artery walls, where symptoms become severe. If it is distressing, tak- type (high-density lipoprotein [HDL] or good) carries cho- ing one regular aspirin tablet (325 mg) 30 to 60 minutes lesterol away from the artery and back to the liver, where before the niacin dose may decrease this reaction. Thus, the healthiest blood choles- ing usually decreases in a few days, but may recur when terol levels are low total cholesterol (<200 mg/dL), low niacin dosage is increased. Ask your health care provider LDL (<130 mg/dL) and high HDL (>35 mg/dL). Increasing intake of dietary ﬁber can help prevent this ad- ✔ Dyslipidemic drugs are given to lower high concentrations verse effect. The goal of management is to pre- Self-Administration vent heart attack, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease. All of these drugs may be more effective if taken ✔ A low-fat diet is needed. This is often the ﬁrst step in treat- in the evening or at bedtime, probably because more cho- ing high cholesterol or triglyceride levels, and may be pre- lesterol is produced at nighttime and the drugs block cho- scribed for 6 months or longer before drug therapy is lesterol production.
A patient who undergoes a total knee replacement discount 20 mg levitra soft otc erectile dysfunction urinary tract infection, for example cheap 20 mg levitra soft free shipping erectile dysfunction natural supplements, should experience less knee pain when he or she walks, have a good range of motion of the joint, and be able to perform the activities of daily living that most of us take for granted. In summary, it is important to maintain a balanced perspective of the process of care when designing data collection efforts by collecting data in all four categories: clinical quality, financial performance, patient satis- faction, and functional status. Quality improvement teams who fail to main- tain this balance may experience some surprising results of their improvement efforts. For instance, a health system in the Southwest initially reported on a series of very successful quality improvement projects—clinical care had Data Collection 119 improved, patient satisfaction was at an all-time high, and patient outcomes were at national benchmark status. However, subsequent review of the projects identified that some of the interventions had an untoward effect on the financial outcomes of the process under improvement. Several inter- ventions significantly decreased revenue, and others increased the cost of care unnecessarily. If financial measures had been included in the data col- lection and reporting process, the negative financial effect could have been minimized and the same outstanding quality improvements would have resulted. In the end, the projects were considered only marginally successful because of the lack of a balanced approach to process improvement and measurement. Considerations in Data Collection The Time and Cost of Data Collection All data collection efforts take time and money. The key is to balance the cost of data collection versus the value of the data to your improvement efforts. In other words, are the cost and time of data collection worth the effort? Although this cost-benefit analysis may not be quite as tangible as in the world of business and finance, it is still imperative that the value equation be considered. Generally, medical record review and prospective data col- lection are considered the most time-intensive and expensive forms of data collection. Many reserve these for highly specialized improvement projects or to answer questions that have surfaced following review of administra- tive data sets. Administrative data2 are often considered very cost effective, especially as the credibility of administrative databases has improved and continues to improve through the efforts of coding and billing regulations, initiatives,3 and rules-based software development. Additionally, third-party vendors have emerged that can provide data cleanup and severity adjust- ment. Successful data collection strategies often combine both code- and chart-based sources into a data collection plan that capitalizes on the strengths and cost effectiveness of each. The following situation illustrates how the cost effectiveness of an administrative system can be combined with the detailed information avail- able in a medical record review. A data analyst, using a clinical decision support system (administrative database), discovered a higher than expected incidence of renal failure (a serious complication) following coronary artery bypass surgery. The rate was well above 10 percent for the most recent 12 months (more than 800 patients were included in the data set), and had 120 The Healthcare Quality Book slowly increased over the last six quarters. However, the clinical decision support system did not contain enough detail to explain why such a high number of patients were experiencing this complication or whether this was a complication of the coronary artery bypass graft procedure versus a chronic condition present on admission. To get to the why, the data ana- lyst used chart review to (1) verify that the rate of renal failure as reported in the administrative data system was correct, (2) isolate cases represent- ing postoperative incidence, (3) identify the root cause(s) of the renal fail- ure, and (4) answer additional questions about the patient population that were of interest to the physicians. In this example, the analyst used the administrative system to identify unwanted complications in a large patient population (a screening or surveillance function) and reserved chart review for a much smaller, focused review (80 charts) to validate the incidence and answer why the patients were experiencing the complication. This is an excellent example of the effective use of two common data sources and demonstrates how the analyst is able to capitalize on the strengths of both while using each most efficiently. Collecting the Critical Few Rather than Collecting for a Rainy Day Many quality improvement efforts take the approach of collecting every possible data element just in case we need it. This syndrome of stockpiling just in case versus fulfilling requirements just in time has been well studied in supply chain management and proven to be ineffective and inefficient and create quality issues (Denison 2002). Similarly, in terms of data collection, this approach provides little value to the effort and is one of the biggest mistakes quality improvement teams tend to make. Rather than provide a rich source of information, this approach unnecessarily drives up the cost of data collection, slows the data collec- tion process, creates data management issues, and often overwhelms the quality improvement team with too much data.