H. Mortis. Indiana University - Purdue University, Fort Wayne.
Thought translation is ciated with a positive potential over the vertex generic fluconazole 50 mg line antifungal shampoo cvs, more exotic and less practical than simpler so- which could be used to cancel the previous lutions for the quadriparetic person order fluconazole 200mg with visa fungus facts. Specific imagined movements and pointer moved by even slight head motion or combinations of movements may be translat- a muscle that the patient twitches enough to able into still better control algorithms. The subject op- NEURONAL SPIKE POTENTIALS erantly learns to move a cursor toward a target such as a letter or icon at the bottom of a screen Cortically implanted and subdural electrodes by inducing a more positive slow or more neg- sense focal brain activity. One of the clinical applications safe, longstanding wire implants and signal of this approach enabled a patient with amyo- processing have been overcome in the past trophic lateral sclerosis to select items such as few years. Normal and quadriplegic subjects who were Signals recorded from 25 to 50 neurons of trained to vary the amplitude or synchroniza- the motor cortex in the forelimb representa- tion of their mu and beta EEG activity learned tion of a rat were used to control a robotic to use this electrical output to control the ver- lever. The lever, then, became terfaces for movement-related and thought-re- a real-time neurorobotic device. Two mon- tions of a device uses cortical slow potentials keys trained at two tasks while they were be- 202 Neuroscientific Foundations for Rehabilitation ing recorded. They moved a manipulandum quickly reflected in the output of the M1 neu- left or right to a visual cue and made 3-di- rons and the model of neural control was eas- mensional hand movements to reach for a treat ily adjusted to offer an effective decoder for a at one of four places on a tray. To rithm tracked changes in cortical tuning prop- date, neural recordings from one implanted erties during this and related tasks for fast and electrode in the motor cortex of a paralyzed slow brain-controlled movements. The tuning subject did come to control the movement of parameters of the neurons changed when a cursor on a computer screen. Remarkably, almost every of 100 electrodes was inplanted into M1 of neuron within a microelectrode array con- monkeys to record from 7 to 30 neurons. The tributes some aspect of the intended movement, investigators created a filter method that suggestive of a locally distributed network within weighted the sum of neural firing to mathe- a single map of the workspace of the hand matically translate the output to accurately re- around the body. The neuronal firing data were built normal arm movements and maintain this con- into a model for movement with decoding fil- trol. Thus, by using control algorithms for ters based on 1–2 minutes of recordings from changes in what neurons are tuned to during M1. Several adjustments corrected the alo- mental practice, a neuroprosthesis or other gorithm. Little training was required before brain-machine interface ought to serve robust the monkey was facile in being able to use its functions for a paralyzed person who can learn own neural activity-based signal to carry out with modest effort. Thus, Strategies for the cortical control of a neu- rapid learning and sensory feedback were roprosthesis or robotic device will take advan- Figure 4–1. General design for a neuroprosthesis that takes neuronal signals associated with the thought of a movement, processes this electrical activity to generate a control signal, and moves the plegic arm using a system of functional neu- romuscular electrical stimulation. Neurostimulators and Neuroprostheses 203 tage of the distributed network for motor con- been offered, depending on the location of the trol, allowing perhaps just one or two sites to cause of blindness. Representational plasticity for make use of the selective survival of inner layer movements that results from practice at a task retinal cells for people with macular degener- will also strengthen the control of the recorded ation or retinitis pigmentosa by directly stimu- assembly for that movement over time. Other lating them, bypassing damaged photorecep- regions of the brain, such as those with mirror tors. With complete retinal or optic nerve neurons that are active during both the obser- damage, the stimulation must include the oc- vation and imitation of a movement, may rap- cipital visual cortex. One approach captures idly acquire firing patterns that the prosthesis images with a camera and a stimulating device uses to control new movements. The density then, the neuroprosthesis will be self-learning, of the array and just what properties it signals rewarded by behavioral success, and poten- determines the size of the visualized pixels. As technical limitations lessen and math- matrix of pixels that is approximately eight by ematical encoding of neural signals improves, eight, visual acuity improves enough to make the activity of assemblies of cells may be used out coarse features. Although comes available for people with longstanding still far from a reality, multichip modules that or congenital blindness, the prior experience of incorporate the nonlinear dynamics and adap- visual cortex may alter its effectiveness. For ex- tive properties of neurons and neural net- ample, new visual inputs to visual and visual as- works48 are being designed to communicate sociation cortices may have to compete with with uninjured surrounding cortical tissue by auditory or finger sensory inputs (from reading conforming to the cytoarchitecture of the en- Braille). The brain and silicon module may adapt tems may be evaluated with fMRI or PET ac- to each other for tasks represented by this in- tivation paradigms. The cochlear specific actions, such as delivering items from implant has restored speech discrimination to one place to another or assisting mobility.
Is this improve- problems and the general recommendations have ment or worsening of the overall condition? A been to use composite measures of severity over patient with OCD may experience a decrease in an extended period of time fluconazole 150mg on line fungus gnats tomato seedlings. Such composite mea- obsessions as the compulsive behaviours grow sures are available for most of the disorders purchase 200mg fluconazole amex fungus that grows on corn, and and become instantiated. Should this be con- most are quite user-friendly: The Yale–Brown sidered a change in severity? A person with a Obsessive Compulsive Scale has been widely phobia may experience lower overall impairment used and is available in a self-report format. Does this mean the phobia Phobia Inventory (SPIN) is also brief and com- is in partial remission? There is little agreement in the ﬁeld symptoms is actually worse than when the dis- about the one or two best measures for each disor- order was ﬁrst diagnosed, and yet there is less der. Similarly, if an individual with OCD for screening diagnosis and outcome though it has prominent obsessions and intermittent com- makes sense to pick the instrument most rele- pulsions are they better off, worse off, or the same vant to the goal of the assessment. What is the role of composite measure presupposes that it is possi- impairment and/or quality of life in determining ble in principle to rank order the outcomes of the outcome? What criteria should we use for ill- patients, although there may be many outcomes ness severity? It is clear that response entails a clin- point of view, the ability to reliably order patient ically signiﬁcant, noticeable change in symptom outcomes into as few as four or ﬁve categories 266 TEXTBOOK OF CLINICAL TRIALS 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Time 0 Time 1 Time 2 Time 3 Time 4 Anticipatory Anxiety Panic Agoraphobia Figure 17. There are diminishing returns even to perfectly reli- Choosing a Time Frame for Outcome able orderings with more than ﬁve levels. Given Assessment even modest unreliability, it may not pay to push composite measures beyond a few levels of dis- The speciﬁcs of time frame are also contro- crimination. In fact, frequently symptom status is will explore the less severe forms of the disor- reported without speciﬁcation of the time frame der, and may be even more vulnerable to the of the assessment. This raises the possi- are further complicated by variability between bility that the target of measurement should not domains and within a domain, depending on be improvement (alone) but prevention of signif- life circumstances. The advantage of this approach such as phobic symptoms, are very stable, and a is that it may move the measurement into a more change in them, even over a fairly brief period, reliable regime, in which there is less controversy e. By its panic attacks to occur in clusters and then to nature, it can be difﬁcult to measure, since many subside. The problem is further compounded by anxiety disorder patients try to avoid thinking difﬁculties inherent in rating panic frequency. This is a speciﬁc environmental demand to confront means that asking a person if there is anything an anxiety-provoking situation. This raises It is necessary to inquire about avoidance by the question of the time frame over which differ- asking speciﬁc questions, and this can be time- ent types of symptoms should be assessed, and consuming. Some behaviour therapists argue that the situations in which the symptoms should be phobias can only be assessed using a behavioural evaluated. Avoidance can also play a role in silencing anx- It may be possible to undertake secondary data iety symptoms and reducing the impetus to seek analyses that target these questions. This may be one way that phobic symptoms time, we suggest that outcome assessment must act to worsen the course of illness. Silencing of take into consideration multiple domains to make symptoms is also reminiscent of the hypertension a meaningful judgment of response or remission. Reports of study avoidance has now been found, like hyperten- results rarely describe conventions for rating pho- sion, to be a predictor of cardiovascular mortality, bia, including changes in life context and/or situ- at least for men. Many published panic disorder silencing of distress is that it can be difﬁcult to studies use panic attack frequency as the only distinguish pathological from normal avoidance outcome. Avoidance of some situations may be Phobic Fear and Avoidance treated as though they are simply life choices. The patient may say that he or she simply does A third issue speciﬁc to anxiety disorders is not enjoy shopping in a mall when the fact is that the occurrence of phobic symptomatology. One they are afraid to go to a mall because they may of the trickiest problems in anxiety disorders have a panic attack. The problem of distinguish- treatment is the assessment and management of ing normal from pathological anxiety is broader avoidance. Avoidance is a natural reaction to fear than the issues related to phobia.
He too was intuitive and could get to the heart of a clinical problem quickly generic fluconazole 50mg on line fungus gnats control neem oil. We spent months attempting to videotape full encounters be- tween patients and physicians in the clinic buy generic fluconazole 200mg on-line fungus under toenail. Tis was in the early days of videotape recordings, and we had constant equipment fail- ures of all kinds. Te equipment was not yet remote, so we had two people in the exam room behind wooden blinds to run the 98 Symptoms of Unknown Origin cameras. In addition to the two cameras in the room, we had a third wide-angle camera in a cut-through in the wall to capture both the physician and the patient, feet to head, in the same recorded view. Te problems in the oﬃces of private physicians were even more formidable. Eventually, we ﬁnally got one full recording of one patient and one physician at the main clinic. Tis one recording became the focus of our eﬀorts for the next several months. Susan spent more than sixty hours mov- ing the video frames back and forth, noting every movement and verbalization of both the physician and the patient, along with the time interval of the movement. She then transcribed the sequence so we could read serially what the patient did and said and what the physician did and said. Susan was in eﬀect creating a dictionary of minute doctor and patient be- haviors. She then noted what she called utterances, classifying each utterance and noting its time intervals. Our intent was to catego- rize with no preconceptions what we saw and heard. Susan categorized every slight movement, tone of voice, inﬂection, and utterance. Her dictionary of behaviors ran well over ﬁfty pages, all from the 157-second tape. Even though Susan and Joe refused to speculate, Stone and I spent hours theorizing about what we observed on the tapes and about the clustered behaviors that Susan had teased out. Most of our conjectures came from our observations through the one- way mirrors. Stone might say, as we watched a doctor and patient, What do you make of that? Tey introduced me to the ideas of unspeciﬁed language and methods for establishing rapport, partic- ularly the notion of people having verbal, visual, or kinesthetic rep- resentational systems. I also learned to pay attention to the verbs patients used and to their facial expressions (Bandler and Grinder 1976a, 1976b, 1979). Grinder and Bandler modeled many of their ideas from careful observations of Milton Erickson, a psychiatrist and superb therapeutic hypnotist (Bandler and Grinder 1982; Haley 1986, 1987; Erickson and Rossi 1979). Te appeal of their ideas is that they are stated in terms that can be refuted by direct observa- tion—thus they are subject to scientiﬁc study. No one has yet done such a study, and the writings of both authors remain outside the mainstream medical literature. In many of the cases that follow in this book, I use techniques that came from the ideas of these au- thors. Stonewall Stickney and I made some tentative observations and speculations from our experiences. I say tentative because we did not conduct full-ﬂedged scientiﬁc experiments. We did not do ﬁeld experiments with the physicians, having them, for example, redirect their cued statements to test the notion of cuing. In one observation, we noticed a lot of movement (hands, arms, head, feet, breathing, eyeblinks) going on by and between patient and doctor. Sometimes these movements of the physician were copied by the patient and a synchrony developed. We speculated that when the patient copies a movement of the physician, the pa- tient is in a receptive state for instructions.
If the client does not eat within tonic solutions are usually avoided because they allow intra- 15 minutes purchase fluconazole 150mg overnight delivery antifungal soap for ringworm, hypoglycemia may occur generic 150 mg fluconazole with amex fungus flies. Insulin glargine should cellular ﬂuid shifts and may cause cerebral, pulmonary, and be given at bedtime. Although serum potassium levels may be normal at ﬁrst, Selection of Subcutaneous Sites they fall rapidly after insulin and IV ﬂuid therapy are begun. Studies indicate that insulin is absorbed are usually added to IV ﬂuids. Because both hypokalemia and fastest from the abdomen, followed by the deltoid, thigh, and hyperkalemia can cause serious cardiovascular disturbances, hip. Because of these differences, many clinicians recom- dosage of potassium supplements must be based on frequent mend rotating injection sites within areas. Also, continuous or creases rotations between areas and promotes more consistent frequent electrocardiogram monitoring is recommended. With regard to temperature, insulin is Severe acidosis can cause serious cardiovascular distur- absorbed more rapidly in warmer sites and environments. In bances, which usually stem from peripheral vasodilation and relation to exercise, people who exercise should avoid in- decreased cardiac output with hypotension and shock. The dosis usually can be corrected by giving ﬂuids and insulin; increased blood ﬂow that accompanies exercise promotes sodium bicarbonate may be given if the pH is less than 7. Rapid alkalinization can cause potassium to move into body cells faster than it can be replaced IV. The result Timing of Food Intake may be severe hypokalemia and cardiac dysrhythmias. Also, Clients receiving insulin need food at the peak action time giving excessive amounts of sodium bicarbonate can produce of the insulin and at bedtime. These snacks help pre- vent hypoglycemic reactions between meals and at night. Treatment of the Unconscious Client When hypoglycemia occurs during sleep, recognition and treatment may be delayed. This delay may allow the reaction When a person with diabetes becomes unconscious and it is to become more severe. If hypoglycemia is the cause, giving glucose may insulin therapy may be started. If DKA is the cause, giving glucose does temporary use to minimize formation of insulin antibodies. Sudden unconsciousness in a client who Small doses are usually required. In addition, most authorities recommend omitting usual doses of insulin on the day of surgery and oral antidiabetic medications for 1 or 2 days Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic before surgery. While the client is receiving nothing by mouth, Nonketotic Coma (HHNC) before and during surgery, IV insulin is usually given. Along Treatment of HHNC is similar to that of DKA in that insulin, with the insulin, clients need adequate sources of carbohy- IV ﬂuids, and potassium supplements are major components. This is usually supplied by IV solutions of 5% or 10% Regular insulin is given by continuous IV infusion, and dextrose. IV ﬂuids are given to correct the pro- until the client is able to eat and drink. Regular insulin also found dehydration and hyperosmolality, and potassium is can be given SC every 4 to 6 hours, with frequent blood glu- given IV to replace the large amounts lost in urine during a cose measurements. When meals are fully tolerated, the preoperative insulin or oral medication regimen can be resumed. Additional regular insulin can be Perioperative Insulin Therapy given for elevated blood glucose and ketones, if indicated. Clients with diabetes who undergo major surgery have in- creased risks of both surgical and diabetic complications. Risks associated with surgery and anesthesia are greater if Guidelines for Using Oral Antidiabetic Drugs diabetes is not well controlled and complications of diabetes (eg, hypertension, nephropathy, vascular damage) are already Sulfonylureas evident. Hyperglycemia and poor metabolic control are asso- • Sulfonylureas are not effective in all clients with type 2 ciated with increased susceptibility to infection, poor wound diabetes and many clients experience primary or sec- healing, and ﬂuid and electrolyte imbalances. Primary failure involves a lack complications are increased because the stress of surgery of initial response to the drugs.