By Q. Kapotth. Mount Mercy College. 2018.
It is also pertinent be- com pounds capable of inhibiting carbonic anhydrase generic minomycin 100 mg with mastercard antibiotic resistance is ancient, cause adm inistration of diuretics can cause secondary the m ost useful of which was acetazolam ide (D iam ox) generic 50 mg minomycin visa bacterial jock itch, hyperaldosteronism, which m ay exaggerate the potas- which is considered the prototype of this class of di- sium wasting that is a consequence of the increased de- uretics. A lthough the clinical use of carbonic anhydrase livery of Na and enhanced ﬂow through distal convo- inhibitors has greatly dim inished since the 1960s, when luted tubules and collecting ducts. In the absence of vitally im portant in helping to delineate the physiologi- A D H, the collecting ducts are essentially im perm eable cal role of carbonic anhydrase in electrolyte conserva- to water. In other words, the clear- dichlorphenam ide (D aranide), and m ethazolam ide ance of solute-free water (CH 2O ) is greater than the os- (Neptazane) are the carbonic anhydrase inhibitors m olar clearance (Cosm ). The driving force for water trans- anhydrase decreases bicarbonate reabsorption, and this port is the osm otic gradient between the m edullary in- accounts for their diuretic effect. NaCl and urea are the anhydrase inhibitors affect both distal tubule and col- two m ajor solutes accounting for the hypertonicity. The lecting duct H secretion by inhibiting intracellular car- NaCl in the interstitium results from the reabsorption of bonic anhydrase. The fractional excretion of Na is The thiazidelike com pounds, including chlorthali- generally lim ited to 5%, as a consequence of down- done (H ygroton), quinethazone (H ydrom ox), and stream com pensatory Na reabsorption. A lthough dis- m etolazone (Zaroxolyn) have sim ilar m echanism s of tal nephron sites recapture m uch of the Na, they pos- action, but they differ substantially from one another in sess only a lim ited ability to absorb H CO. Fractional their duration of action, the degree of carbonic anhy- 3 K excretion, however, can be as m uch as 70%. The form ation of alkaline urine and to m etabolic acidosis as Na –Cl cotransport takes place on the lum inal surface a result of both H CO 3 loss and im paired H secretion. Thus, to exert their diuretic The m ain therapeutic use of carbonic anhydrase in- action, the thiazides m ust reach the lum inal ﬂuid. Since hibitors is not for the production of diuresis but in the the thiazide diuretics are largely bound to plasm a pro- treatm ent of glaucom a. This is true especially of the top- teins and therefore are not readily ﬁltered across the ically applied com pound dorzolam ide (Trusopt). The pends on carbonic anhydrase, acetazolam ide has proved drugs then travel along the nephron, presum ably being to be a useful adjunct to the usual therapy for lowering concentrated as ﬂuid is abstracted, until they reach their intraocular pressure. O ral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are iazide shows any appreciable carbonic anhydrase in- also useful in preventing or treating acute m ountain hibitory activity. A dverse reactions are m inor; they include loss of appetite, drowsiness, confusion, and tingling in the Renal Response extrem ities. A nim al studies have shown som e terato- genic potential, so the use of carbonic anhydrase in- W hen adm inistered at m axim al doses, chlorothiazide hibitors is not recom m ended during the ﬁrst trim ester m arkedly increases excretion of Na,K,C l, and of pregnancy. M axim al diuresis m ay approach values as high 3 Thiazide Diuretics Thiazide diuretics consist of two distinct groups: those T A B L E 21. The lat- Generic Name Trade Names ter are called thiazidelike diuretics; they include metola- Bendroﬂum ethiazide Naturetin zone, xipamide, and indapamide. The major thiazide and Benzthiazide A quatag, Exna thiazidelike drugs available in the United States are Chlorothiazide D iuril bendroﬂumethiazide, benzthiazide, chlorothiazide, hy- H ydrochlorothiazide Esidrix, H ydroD IU RIL H ydroﬂum ethiazide Saluron, D iucardin drochlorothiazide, hydroﬂumethiazide, methyclothiazide, M ethyclothiazide Enduron,A quatensen polythiazide, and trichlormethiazide; and chlorthalidone, Polythiazide Renese indapamide, metolazone, and quinethazone, respectively. Trichlorm ethiazide Naqua, M etahydrin D espite the structural distinctions, the drugs share Chlorthalidone H ygroton the functional attribute of increasing sodium and chlo- Indapam ide Lozol M etolazone Zaroxolyn, D iulo ride excretion by inhibiting Na –Cl cotransport in dis- Q uinethazone H ydrom ox tal convoluted tubules. A t usual clinical gestive heart failure, cirrhosis, prem enstrual tension, doses, however, the thiazide diuretics generally increase and horm one therapy. They are widely used in the treat- excretion of Na and Cl, with an accom panying loss of m ent of hypertension whether or not it is accom panied K. They can be used in patients hibitors, the diuresis produced by thiazide and thiazide- with renal disease; however, their diuretic activity is like diuretics is of NaCl and not NaH CO 3. The urinary proportional to the residual tubular functional capacity K wasting induced by the thiazides is prim arily a con- of the kidney. The thiazides do not prevent toxem ia in sequence of the increased Na delivered to the distal pregnancy, nor are they useful in the treatm ent of it. W ith these com pounds, Na excre- tion is increased, while Ca excretion is decreased, pri- Thiazides should be used cautiously in the presence of m arily and directly because of increased distal Ca re- severe renal and hepatic disease, since azotem ia and absorption, secondarily and indirectly because of a com a m ay result.
Vecuronium discount 100mg minomycin infection esbl, Rocuronium minomycin 100mg visa virus protection free download, and Rapacuronium Pharmacological Actions Mechanism of Action Succinylcholine acts primarily at the skeletal neuromus- With the exception of succinylcholine, all neuromuscular cular junction and has little effect at autonomic ganglia blocking agents are nondepolarizing. Succinylcholine has no The prototype for this group is d-tubocurarine, an alka- direct action on the uterus or other smooth muscle loid used as a South American arrow poison. It may, however, release histamine nary ammonium) separated by a “thick” organic moiety from mast cells. These heads enable attachment ulating rather than blocking end plate receptors, anti- of the drug to the two AChR binding sites. However, be- AChEs will not reverse muscle paralysis and may actu- cause of the large intervening moiety, the channel is oc- ally prolong the block. Because of the competitive nature of this blockade, the Clinical Uses effect of nondepolarizing blockers can be reversed by anti-AChE agents and other procedures that increase The principal advantage of succinylcholine is its rapid the synaptic concentration of ACh. With intravenous (IV) adminis- tration, succinylcholine produces ﬂaccid paralysis that Pharmacological Actions occurs in less than 1 minute and lasts about 10 minutes. This makes it suitable for short-term procedures, such d-Tubocurarine blocks nicotinic AChRs in muscle end as endotracheal intubation, setting of fractures, and pre- plates and autonomic ganglia but has no effect on mus- 28 Agents Affecting Neuromuscular Transmission 343 carinic AChRs. The is charged, it penetrates cells poorly and does not enter amount of neuromuscular blocker should be decreased the CNS. In hu- mans, d-tubocurarine has a moderate onset of action (3- Other Nondepolarizing Blockers 4 minutes) followed by progressive ﬂaccid paralysis. The of Importance head and neck muscles are affected initially, then the limb muscles, and ﬁnally the muscles of respiration. Atracurium besylate (Tracrium) is a benzylisoquinolin- Recovery from paralysis is in the reverse order. Its actions are simi- lar to those of d-tubocurarine, but its duration of action Clinical Uses is shorter (45 minutes) because of spontaneous degra- dation of the molecule (Hofmann elimination). Because Nondepolarizing blockers are used to relax skeletal of this, atracurium is useful in patients with low or atyp- muscle for surgical procedures, to prevent dislocations ical plasma cholinesterase and in patients with renal or and fractures associated with electroconvulsive therapy, hepatic impairment. The primary The degree of blockade can be inﬂuenced by body mechanism of inactivation is hydrolysis by plasma pH and electrolyte balance. Although it is useful for patients with rhea, renal disease, or use of potassium-depleting di- renal or hepatic disease, some caution is warranted, uretics potentiates the effect of nondepolarizing block- since these individuals may have reduced plasma ers. The effectiveness of d-tubocurarine (20 minutes) only twice that of succinylcholine, and in is reduced by alkalosis. It is ﬁve with myasthenia gravis are very sensitive to paralysis by times as potent as d-tubocurarine. This rarine, it does not release histamine or block ganglionic altered responsiveness is probably due to the fewer transmission. Pancuronium and its metabolite are elimi- dosage must be reduced and the degree of block closely nated in the urine. Vecuronium bromide (Norcuron) is chemically identical to pancuronium except for a tertiary amine in Adverse Effects and Precautions place of a quaternary nitrogen. However, some of the d-Tubocurarine may cause bronchospasms and hy- drug will exist as the bisquaternary compound, depend- potension by release of histamine from mast cells. Like pancuronium, it does not block ganglia or thetic ganglia and the adrenal medulla, which may also vagal neuroeffector junctions, does not release hista- contribute to hypotension. Inhalation anesthetics, such as isoﬂurane, enﬂurane, Rocuronium bromide (Zemuron) is a recently ap- halothane, and nitrous oxide, potentiate the action of proved amino steroid neuromuscular blocking agent. It nondepolarizing blockers, either through modiﬁcation has a rapid onset of action (1 minute), but its duration of of end plate responsiveness or by alteration of local action is intermediate (55 minutes), about that of ve- blood ﬂow. Rapacuronium bromide muscle relaxant should be reduced when used with (Raplon) is the most recent neuromuscular blocking these anesthetics. It is an analogue of vecuronium polymyxins, lincomycin) enhance neuromuscular block- and is thus categorized as an amino steroid. The alternative to mivacurium or succinylcholine for short drowsiness is less pronounced than that produced by procedures.
NATUROPATHIC MODALITIES A brief overview follows of the main modalities practiced by NDs which include minomycin 50 mg on-line antibiotics quick reference, as mentioned above purchase 50 mg minomycin amex antibiotic treatment for chlamydia, botanical medicine, diet (nutritional counseling), nutritional supplements, homeopathy, physical medicine (physiotherapy, hydrotherapy, electrotherapy, manipulation) and psychological counseling. There is a brief review of human trials that have been conducted for some neurological conditions for that modality. However, since many of the modalities of naturopathy are more completely described in other chapters in this book, we will only review the clinical evidence for efficacy in diet, some nutritional supplements (excluding vitamins and essential minerals) and homeopathy. Because it is not addressed substantively in other chapters of this book, a brief introduction to homeopathy is also included. Botanical medicine Naturopaths are primarily trained in the European and North American botanical medicine traditions augmented by exposure to the indigenous botanical approaches of Asia, Africa, and Central and South America. They are the bearers of the eclectic tradition of herbal medicine, a medical movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, that was the most modern and detailed expression of herbal medicine in the USA but which had almost died out by the 1930s. The basic naturopathic training in botanicals includes historical use, disease indications, mechanism of action (if known), active constituents (if known), adverse reactions and contraindications, and drug interactions (if known) of about 200 botanicals. This is important, as many naturopaths continue to produce their own formulations of herbal tinctures. They may use a single herb or a combination of herbs to treat a particular disease condition. Combinations of two to five herbs are often used in a formula for either acute or chronic conditions. Siberian ginseng (Eleuthrococcus sinensis) and gotu kola (Centella asiastica) might be considered stimulant nervines. The adaptogens, mostly from Asian traditions (the ginsengs, Withania somnifera), are also considered tonic nervines. This tonic function of herbs is common across herbal traditions and is a class of mechanisms perhaps inadequately attended to among pharmaceutical approaches to neurological disorders. Diet (clinical nutrition) Naturopaths attend to dietary assessment including macro- and micro-nutrient content in foods, individual responses to diets and specific foods and in the application of a variety of therapeutic diets. The use of diet to improve health is a therapeutic foundation in naturopathic medicine as it encompasses aspects of all six of the naturopathic principles. The types of diet that NDs use are highly variable and may include, on a case-by-case basis, low fat, elimination and challenge (hypoallergenic), glutenfree, dairy-free, blood type diet, vegetarian and fasting (juice, water). Clinical evidence evaluating the influence of diet in neurological disease includes the following examples. Epilepsy: the ketogenic diet The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that was developed decades ago but which has recently come under consideration in intractable cases. There have been many studies reporting a sig- nificant decrease in seizures of children with severe epilepsy that were 10–12 treated with the ketogenic diet. Although the diet is highly successful in decreasing seizures in difficult-to-treat epileptic children, compliance with the diet is often an 13 issue. There is evidence that it may increase the frequency of kidney stone formation in 14 those on the diet. Migraine headaches: hypoallergenic diets (elimination/challenge diet) The rationale for use of this type of diet for migraine headaches is that food allergies cause platelet degranulation and histamine release that can precipitate vasomotor 15 instability and subsequent migraine. There are a number of studies that have reported a benefit in subjects who suffer from migraines and have eliminated foods that might elicit 16–20 a migraine. The elimination diet requires that a person go on various versions of an oligoallergenic restricted diet (a typical diet may be primarily lamb and rice for a period of 7–10 days) after which they systematically re-introduce food groups to identify foods that will elicit a migraine. Once a food that triggers a migraine is identified, the food is taken out of the diet for a period of time and is re-introduced in smaller quantities. The strategy is not to stay on a highly restricted diet but to identify allergenic foods and to decrease the amounts and frequency of these foods consumed. Naturopathic medicine in neurological disorders 159 Multiple sclerosis: the Swank diet There have been a number of epidemiological studies assessing associations between dietary factors and the risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS). A number of epidemiological studies have reported a significant positive association between risk of 21,22 MS and consumption of animal fat.
These rotations were consistent with the rotation of PDs in the shoulder and elbow muscles of the arm in the same task cheap 100mg minomycin otc treatment for fungal uti. Because the memory cells that Bizzi and colleagues12 found were sensitive to changes in force properties of the task discount minomycin 100 mg with amex antibiotics for uti black and yellow, i. We would expect that their PDs will rotate with the shoulder in a way similar to the rotation of PDs in arm muscles performing the same task. Imagine that the force ﬁeld–related changes in the PD and the posture-related changes in PD are cumulative. Then training in one work- space should result in the rotation of PDs by a certain amount, and translation of the arm to a new workspace should result in an additional rotation by an amount approximately equal to the rotation in the shoulder joint. At the new workspace, despite the fact that no prior training had taken place there, an effect of the training elsewhere should be observed, i. However, it is certainly not the case that all M1 cells are “muscle-like” in their tuning properties. In many instances, experiments have demonstrated that a signif- icant portion of cells in M1 code for parameters of reaching movements in extrinsic coordinates. Therefore, our hypoth- esis assumes that M1 cells that have more muscle-like properties — i. For example, consider adaptation to a force ﬁeld described by = B1˙, where f is a force vector acting on the hand, x˙ is a hand velocity vector, and B1 = [–11, –11; –11, 11] N·sec/m. If the right arm is near the horizontal plane and the shoulder is ﬂexed so that the hand is at a “left” workspace (meaning that reaching movements are performed in a ﬂexed posture for the shoulder), the PD of the triceps is about 90°. When a subject trains in the ﬁeld, one observes a 30° clockwise rotation in the PD of the triceps. Now imagine that there are cells in the motor cortex that also rotate their PD by an amount similar to this. Furthermore, we would expect that on average, the 90° clockwise rotation in the shoulder joint should cause the PD of these cells to rotate by an average of 90°. So for a motor cortical cell that was “muscle-like” and had a PD of, say, 180° at the left workspace, adaptation to the ﬁeld at that workspace should cause the PD to change to 150° (i. If the subject had not practiced movements in the ﬁeld, this cell would have a PD of 90°. Therefore, the effect of training at the left workspace should be observable in terms of the behavior of the hand at the right workspace if the “memory cells” that rotated their PD at the left workspace maintain their relative rotation at the right workspace. In terms of forces, this corresponds to a ﬁeld where the relative rotation of the muscle PDs is maintained as a function of the shoulder angle. One can approximate such a force ﬁeld by transforming forces on the hand at the “left” workspace to joint torques, and then transforming the torques back to hand forces at the “right” workspace. This theoretical result means that the force ﬁeld described by B1 should be generalized to –B1 at the right workspace. We were intrigued by this prediction because we had observed earlier that if one adapts to ﬁeld B and then is given ﬁeld –B in the same workspace, performance in –B is absolutely terrible. In fact, perfor- mance in –B for these subjects is far worse than performance of naïve subjects in the same ﬁeld. The property of activity ﬁelds that is relevant in this case is the change in PD as a function of shoulder angle. Alternatively, how does one infer the shape of the activity ﬁelds from the patterns of behavioral generaliza- tion? We need to advance beyond a description of the input–output variables that are encoded by internal models (sensory state of the arm and force, respectively) and consider how the transformation from input to output might take place. That is, we must ﬁrst consider how the central nervous system might compute internal models. While the idea of using populations of neurons to code variables of interest is old,19 it has become a compelling tool since it was combined with a simple decoding strategy called a population vector to reconstruct the direction of reaching move- ments from cells in M1. Therefore, w is a two-dimensional vector that might point in any direction about a unit circle.