By K. Mufassa. Coleman College.
Once you have done this discount serpina 60 caps line hypertension 16090, clues will start to emerge about what is the best form of inquiry for you discount serpina 60caps hypertension vs high blood pressure. Cer- tain words help to suggest a leaning towards qualitative research, others towards quantitative research. For exam- ple, if you have written ‘how many’, ‘test’, ‘verify’, ‘how often’ or ‘how satisﬁed’, this suggests a leaning towards quantitative research. If you have written words such as ‘discover’, ‘motivation’, ‘experiences’, ‘think/thoughts’, ‘problems’, or ‘behave/behaviour’, this suggests a leaning towards qualitative research. However, you may ﬁnd that you have written a combination of these words which could mean two things. Firstly, you might want to think about combining both qualitative and quantitative re- search, which is called triangulation. Many researchers be- lievethisisagoodwayofapproachingresearchasit enables you to counteract the weaknesses in both qualita- tive and quantitative research. Secondly, it could mean that your ideas are still unclear and that you need to focus a little more. To help you understand the thought processes involved in these decisions, let’s return to the exercise given in the previous chapter: EXAMPLE 2: Revised statements Original statement 1: This research aims to ﬁnd out what people think about television. After having thought about how to focus her topic, make the project more manageable and produce a worthwhile piece of research, the researcher came up with the following revised statement: HOW TO DECIDE UPON A METHODOLOGY / 21 Revised Statement 1: This research aims to ﬁnd out what primary school teachers think about the educational value of ‘The Teletubbies’ television programme. When the stu- dent suggested this research it was also very topical – The Teletubbies had been released only four weeks prior to the research and complaints about their language were ﬁlling the national media. The student wishes to get an in-depth opinion, but is not concerned with speaking to a large number of primary school teachers. Original statement 2: My project is to do some research into Alzheimer’s disease, to ﬁnd out what people do when their relatives have it and what support they can get and how nurses deal with it. Also, he found out some more information about whether his research needed to go to a Research Ethics Committee by checking out the website www. This site gives details about the committees, a list of meeting dates, guidance notes and application forms for those researchers interested in putting forward a proposal. Revised statement 2: The aim of this research is to ﬁnd out how many relatives of Alzheimer’s patients use the Maple Day Centre, and to ascertain whether the ser- vice is meeting their needs. The research population is limited to relatives of Alzhei- mer’s patients who use the Maple Day Centre. One clue 22 / PRACTICAL RESEARCH METHODS to the methodology is in the words ‘how many’ which suggests a quantitative study. However, he is also inter- ested in ﬁnding out whether the service meets their needs, which requires some more in-depth inquiry. Original Statement 3: We want to ﬁnd out how many of the local residents are interested in a play scheme for chil- dren during the summer holiday. The tenants’ association thought carefully about the is- sues in which they were interested, eventually coming up with the following revised statement: Revised Statement 3: This research aims to ﬁnd out how many people from our estate are interested in, and would use, a children’s play scheme in the school summer holiday. The tenants’ association wanted to obtain funding for their play scheme and felt that it was important to gather sta- tistics which they could take to possible funding organi- sations. SUMMARY X The research methodology is the philosophy or general principle which guides the research. HOW TO DECIDE UPON A METHODOLOGY / 23 X Examples of qualitative methodologies include action research, ethnography, feminist research and grounded theory. X Quantitative research generates statistics through the use of large-scale survey research. X Neither qualitative nor quantitative research is better – they are just diﬀerent. X Your own intuition and the words you use will give pointers to whether qualitative or quantitative research is more appropriate for your chosen project. X The term ‘triangulation’ is used when a combination of qualitative and quantitative forms of inquiry are used. FURTHER READING The theoretical and philosophical issues raised in this chapter are detailed and complex and cannot be discussed in depth in this book. However, if you wish to pursue any of these topics, some of the useful publications are listed below under the relevant topics. Qualitative research Over recent years there has been a great deal of innova- tion in the use of qualitative methodologies. Listed below are some of the more traditional texts and a selection of the newer, innovative texts.
National Library of Canada Cataloguing in Publication Low cheap serpina 60caps without a prescription pulse pressure cardiac output, Jacqueline 60caps serpina fast delivery blood pressure medication wiki, 1964– Using alternative therapies : a qualitative analysis / Jacqueline Low. DEDICATION This book is dedicated, with love, to the memory of my brother, Douglas, who never failed to encourage me or tell me of the pride he took in my scholarly achievements. This page intentionally left blank Table of Contents PREFACE VIII ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS X INTRODUCTION 1 THE STUDY THE STRUCTURE OF THE BOOK CHAPTER ONE 12 What Are Alternative Therapies and Who Uses Them? CHAPTER TWO 26 How People Use Alternative Therapies ALTERNATIVE HEALTH CARE NETWORKS Friends The Media Family Commercial Outlets Public and Private Institutions Alternative Practitioners and Alternative Health Centres Allopaths Non-Mainstream Spiritual Groups The Work Place ENTRÉES INTO ALTERNATIVE HEALTH CARE RECONCEPTUALIZING THE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM CHAPTER THREE 42 Why People Turn to Alternative Therapies MOTIVATING FACTORS Control Holism Dissatisfaction INDIVIDUAL PROBLEMS, ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS Physical Problems Personal Problems THE WIDER SOCIO-CULTURAL CONTEXT CHAPTER FOUR 54 An Alternative Model of Healing THE FOCUS AND PURPOSE OF THERAPY Chronic vs. Invasive THE NATURE OF THE CLIENT/PRACTITIONER RELATIONSHIP Attitude Time Caring ALTERNATIVE HEALING TECHNIQUES Self-Healing Healing Energy CHAPTER FIVE 67 An Alternative Model of Health ALTERNATIVE HEALTH AS PROCESS Holism Balance Control THE IMPLICATIONS OF ALTERNATIVE HEALTH BELIEFS CHAPTER SIX 81 Alternative Healing and the Self ADOPTING A HEALER IDENTITY CHANGES IN SELF-PERCEPTION Changes in Personality Changes in Value Systems HEALING THE SELF CHAPTER SEVEN 95 Using Alternative Therapies: A Deviant Identity BIOGRAPHIES, ACCOUNTS, AND RETROSPECTIVE REINTERPRETATION ALTERNATIVE THERAPY USE AS DEVIANT BEHAVIOUR MANAGING THE STIGMA OF USING ALTERNATIVE THERAPIES Accounting for Stigma Stigma Management Via Retrospective Reinterpretation CONCLUSION 111 IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH POLICY SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH APPENDIX: THE THERAPIES 127 ACUPRESSURE ACUPUNCTURE AROMATHERAPY ASTROLOGICAL HEALING BAGUA CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE CHIROPRACTIC CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MEDICINE CREATIVE VISUALISATION CRYSTAL HEALING EAR CANDLING FASTING FELDENKRAIS METHOD HERBAL MEDICINE HOMEOPATHY HYPNOTHERAPY IRIDOLOGY MASSAGE MEDITATION MIDWIFERY NATUROPATHY PSYCHIC HEALING REFLEXOLOGY REIKI THE RESULTS SYSTEM THERAPEUTIC TOUCH VITAMIN THERAPY YOGA REFERENCES 139 INDEX 152 Preface In this book I present a qualitative analysis of the experiences of twenty-one Canadians who use alternative therapies. My analysis is informed by a symbolic interactionist perspective that emphasizes the process by which people give meaning to reality, and how those meanings guide their actions. This research is a timely addition to the literature on alternative and complementary health care as it addresses significant gaps in this area of scholarship. For instance, dominant biomedical interests mean that there is considerable study of the therapies themselves, especially the issues of efficacy and safety (Ernst 1997, 1999, 2000a; Lewith et al. An equally pervasive concentration on the professions means that research is, more often than not, geared towards the study of the activities of alternative practitioners in their efforts to professionalize or achieve regulated status (Boon 1998; Bourgeault 2000; Coburn 1997; Saks 1995). While the aforementioned are certainly valid research concerns, preoccupation with them turns attention away from the lay person who participates in these approaches to health and healing. Moreover, even when the focus of research is on the user of these therapies, the overwhelming majority of studies employ quantitative methods (Eisenberg et al. While quantitative approaches can provide us with information about the number of people who use alternative health care, as well as about their broad demographic characteristics, they tell us less about the wider experiences people have with alternative therapies and the impact of those experiences on their lives. The study of alternative therapy has also been dominated by British and American scholarship. While the last ten years has seen the burgeoning of attention to the study of alternative health and healing by Canadian scholars,1 little international research has addressed participation in alternative health care in the Canadian context. For instance, in documenting the usage of | IX alternative and complementary therapies in the United Kingdom (UK) and internationally, Fulder (1996:xii) refers to “the United States, Western Europe, Germany, France, The Netherlands, the rest of Europe and Scandinavia,... China [and] India”—but makes no mention of the use of alternative therapies in Canada. Therefore, my intent in this book is to address these gaps in the literature by furthering understanding of how and why Canadians seek out alternative health care, of their beliefs about these approaches to health and healing, and of what impact participation in these therapies has on them. This work will be of particular interest to sociologists and other social scientists researching and teaching in the areas of health and health care, as well as in those of alternative and complementary therapies. It will also be useful for graduate and undergraduate students in health studies programs or those majoring in sociology and social sciences with a focus on health, illness, and health care. Given my attention to issues of identity construction and stigma management, this book can also serve as a supplementary text in courses dealing with such subjects as “the self and identity” as well as “deviant behaviour. Finally, I hope that this study and its findings will be of interest to those members of the general public who participate in alternative therapies, or who wish to learn more about alternative forms of health and healing. Acknowledgements I am grateful to William Shaffir, Dorothy Pawluch, and Roy Cain, who supervised the dissertation research from which this book emerged. Professor Shaffir’s expertise in qualitative methods and symbolic interactionist theory has been instrumental in shaping my development as a sociologist. In addition, I thank him for his continued support of my work and for his mischievous sense of humour. I am equally appreciative of the specialist knowledge Professors Pawluch and Cain shared with me. They were, at the time, two of the very few Canadian scholars working in the area of lay participation in alternative health care, and my research would have been the lesser without their counsel. Special thanks to Professor Pawluch, who has been my mentor from the time I began my undergraduate studies in sociology. I am ever grateful to her for her friendship and consistent encouragement. I would also like to express my appreciation to Althea Prince, Managing Editor of Canadian Scholars’ Press, and Rebecca Conolly, Manager of Book Production, both for their commitment to this project and for their thought- ful editorial guidance. Thanks likewise to Rob Baggot, Robert Prus, Mike Saks, Will van den Hoonaard, and the anonymous reviewers of this manuscript, for the constructive suggestions they offered during the pro- posal stage and editing of this book, as well as to Dirk Lenentine and Denis Desjardins for their essential graphic design skills. In addition, I acknowledge the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada and McMaster University for their generous funding of the research on which this book is based.
The end of the Cold War marked an end to the polarisations between East and West generic 60 caps serpina free shipping blood pressure chart uk, labour and capital 60 caps serpina mastercard blood pressure jnc, left and right, that had dominated society for 150 years. The unchallenged ascendancy of the market meant that the scope for politics was increasingly restricted. Collective solutions to social problems had been discredited and there was a general disillusionment with ‘grand narratives’. One indication of the resulting ideological and political flux was the fact that the remnants of the left broadly endorsed the Conservative government’s Aids campaign (some criticising it for not going far enough), while some right-wingers challenged its scaremongering character (though a few hardliners demanded a more traditional anti- gay, anti-sex line). As someone who had always identified with the political left, the ending of the old order in the late 1980s led to some contradictory and disconcerting developments. In response to a series of setbacks at home and abroad, the left lowered its horizons and became increasingly moderate and defensive. The weakness of the British left had always been its tendency to confuse state intervention for socialism. In the past, however, the state had intervened in industry and services; now (as it tried to retreat from some of its earlier commitments) it stepped up its interference in personal and family life. The left’s endorsement of the government’s Aids campaign, following earlier feminist approval of the mass removal of children from parents suspected of sexual abuse in Cleveland, signalled the radical movement’s abandonment of its traditional principles of liberty and opposition to state coercion. While most conservative commentators loyally defended government policy, only a small group of free-market radicals was prepared to advance a, rather limited, defence of individual freedom against the authoritarian dynamic revealed in the government’s health policies (see Chapter 5). Until the early 1990s, politics and medical practice were distinct and separate spheres. Some doctors were politically active, but they viii PREFACE conducted these activities in parties, campaigns and organisations independent of their clinical work. No doubt, their political outlook influenced their style of practice, but most patients would have scarcely been aware of where to place their doctor on the political spectrum. Systematic government interference in health care has since eroded the boundary between politics and medicine, substantially changing the content of medical practice and creating new divisions among doctors. Thus, for example, the split between fundholding and non-fundholding GPs in the early 1990s loosely reflected party-political allegiances as well as the divide between, on the one hand, suburban and rural practices, and on the other, those in inner cities. Despondent at the wider demise of the left, radical doctors turned towards their workplaces and played an influential role in implementing the agenda of health promotion and disease prevention, and in popularising this approach among younger practitioners. Allowing themselves the occasional flicker of concern at the victimising character of official attempts at lifestyle modification, former radicals reassured themselves with the wishful thinking that it was still possible to turn the sow’s ear of coercive health promotion into the silk purse of community empowerment. Reflecting the wider exhaustion of the old order throughout Western society, an older generation of more conservative and traditional practitioners either capitulated to the new style or grumpily took early retirement. In 1987 I co-authored The Truth About The Aids Panic, challenging the way in which the ‘tombstones and icebergs’ campaign had grossly exaggerated the dangers of HIV infection in Britain, causing public alarm out of all proportion to the real risk (Fitzpatrick, Milligan 1987). Though the central argument of this book was rapidly vindicated by the limited character of the epidemic, it received an overwhelmingly hostile response, particularly from the left. Radical bookshops either refused to stock it or insisted on selling it with an inclusion warning potential readers that it might prove dangerous to their health. In public debates I was accused of encouraging genocide and there were demands that I should be struck off the medical register. My argument that safe sex was simply a new moral code for regulating sexual behaviour provoked particular animosity from those who took the campaign’s disavowal of moralism at face value. Not only does moralism not need a dog collar, in the 1990s it was all the more effective for being presented through the medium of the Terrence Higgins Trust, once aptly characterised as the Salvation Army without the brass band. Given the pressures of full-time general practice, intensified by the various government reforms and campaigns, this project took rather longer than intended and, in 1996. This was rejected by the Department of Health on the grounds that the proposed project was not ‘in the interests of medicine in a broad sense or otherwise in the interests of the NHS as a whole’. The fact that I was obliged to carry on working on this project in the interstices of the working day has meant that it has taken rather longer than anticipated. This has, however, enabled me to take into account the accelerated development of some of the trends of the early 1990s in the period since New Labour’s electoral triumph in 1997. The scope of government intervention in personal life through the medium of health has expanded—into areas such as domestic violence and parenting—and it has become more authoritarian— notably in the programme for maintaining heroin users on long-term methadone treatment. Yet the remarkable feature of New Labour’s public health initiatives is that they have provoked virtually no criticism either from the world of medicine or from that of politics, from any part of the political spectrum. The collapse of both the old left and the new right gives New Labour unprecedented authority to push forward both its authoritarian public health policy and its ill-considered programme of ‘modernisation’ in the health service.
Other microorganisms are able to participate in the Caulobacter crescentus can be grown in the laboratory cycling of carbon discount 60 caps serpina mastercard blood pressure newborn. For example the green and purple sulfur so that all the bacteria in the population undergoes division at bacteria are able to use the energy they gain from the degra- the same time generic 60 caps serpina overnight delivery pulse pressure in aortic regurgitation. This type of growth is termed synchronous dation of a compound called hydrogen sulfide to degrade car- growth. Other bacteria such as Thiobacillus the various events in gene regulation necessary for growth and ferrooxidans uses the energy gained from the removal of an division. The anerobic degradation of carbon is done only by See also Bacterial appendages; Bacterial surface layers; Cell microorganisms. This degradation is a collaborative effort cycle (prokaryotic), genetic regulation of; Phenotypic variation involving numerous bacteria. Examples of the bacteria include Bacteroides succinogenes, Clostridium butyricum, and Syntrophomonas sp. This bacterial collaboration, which is CDC • see CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL (CDC) termed interspecies hydrogen transfer, is responsible for the bulk of the carbon dioxide and methane that is released to the atmosphere. Cech has revolutionized the way in which scientists look at RNA and at proteins. Up to the time of Cech’s discoveries in 1981 and 1982, it had been thought that CAULOBACTER genetic coding, stored in the DNA of the nucleus, was Caulobacter imprinted or transcribed onto RNA molecules. These RNA Caulobacter crescentus is a Gram-negative rod-like bacterium molecules, it was believed, helped transfer the coding onto that inhabits fresh water. It is noteworthy principally because proteins produced in the ribosomes. Instead of dividing two was thus the information center of the cell, while protein mol- form two identical daughter cells as other bacteria do (a ecules in the form of enzymes were the workhorses, catalyz- process termed binary division), Caulobacter crescentus ing the thousands of vital chemical reactions that occur in the undergoes what is termed symmetric division. Conventional wisdom held that the two functions were 101 Cech, Thomas R. WORLD OF MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY separate—that there was a delicate division of labor. Cech and others discovered that portions of seemingly noncoded DNA his colleagues at the University of Colorado established, how- were snipped out of the RNA and the chain was spliced back ever, that this picture of how RNA functions was incorrect; together where these intervening segments had been removed. It was a discovery that reverberated through- Cech and his coworkers were not initially interested in out the scientific community, leading not only to new tech- such introns, but they soon became fascinated with their func- nologies in RNA engineering but also to a revised view of the tion and the splicing mechanism itself. Cech shared the 1989 Nobel Prize for how these so-called nonsense sequences, or introns, were Chemistry with Sidney Altman at Yale University for their removed from the transcribed RNA, Cech and his colleague work regarding the role of RNA in cell reactions. Arthur Zaug decided to investigate the pre-ribosomal RNA of Cech was born in Chicago, Illinois, to Robert Franklin the Tetrahymena, just as it underwent transcription. Cech do this, they first isolated unspliced RNA and then added some recalled in an autobiographical sketch for Les Prix Nobel, he Tetrahymena nuclei extract. Their assumption was that the cat- grew up in “the safe streets and good schools” of Iowa City, alytic agent or enzyme would be present in such an extract. His father had a deep and abiding interest in physics as two scientists also added small molecules of salts and well as medicine, and from an early age Cech took an avid inter- nucleotides for energy, varying the amounts of each in subse- est in science, collecting rocks and minerals and speculating quent experiments, even excluding one or more of the additives. In junior high school he was But the experiment took a different turn than was expected. Cech went to Grinnell College in 1966; at first attracted occurred even without the nucleic material being present. This to physical chemistry, he soon concentrated on biological chem- was a development they did not understand at first; it was a istry, graduating with a chemistry degree in 1970. They married in 1970 and situation in which RNA appeared to be its own catalytic moti- went together to the University of California at Berkeley for vator. At first they suspected that their experiment had been graduate studies. Cech did further experiments involving recom- Cech recalled in Les Prix Nobel, “had an enthusiasm for chro- binant DNA in which there could be no possibility of the pres- mosome structure and function that proved infectious. Further discoveries in Cech’s and they moved to the east coast for postdoctoral positions— laboratory into the nature of the intron led to his belief that the Cech at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) under intron itself was the catalytic agent of RNA splicing, and he Mary Lou Pardue, and his wife at Harvard.