P. Falk. The College of Saint Rose.
On the other hand discount extra super levitra 100mg on line impotence 30s, a result of nerves from each eye combine at the base 20/10 would indicate that the individual of the brain just in front of the brain stem being tested has better-than-normal visu- to form the optic chiasm order 100 mg extra super levitra amex low testosterone erectile dysfunction treatment. At this point half al acuity, since he or she can see at 20 feet of the nerve tracts from each eye cross what individuals with normal visual acu- over to the opposite side of the brain. Depth perception area that individuals can see without turn- requires that the brain receive input from ing the head or moving the eyes. The portion of the visual ﬁeld Peripheral vision (side vision) is meas- detected by both eyes is called the binoc- ured by a curved device called a perimeter. Visual acuity is deﬁned as the sharp- Central vision (vision in the center of the ness of the visual image perceived. Visual visual ﬁeld) is tested with the individual acuity tests are used to measure the level looking at a tangent screen on which a test 126 CHAPTER 4 CONDITIONS OF THE EYE AND BLINDNESS object is systematically moved across the Severe visual impairment can be deﬁned screen. Individuals’ ability to see the as the inability to read ordinary newsprint object at certain points is then mapped, even with the aid of glasses (Lighthouse, outlining their central ﬁeld of vision. When deviations of vision are great enough to cause total loss of light percep- tion, the term blindness is used. Many TYPES OF VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS individuals, however, have some usable vision if they use special aids or devices to When any deviation from normal perform most tasks. When ordinary glass- vision exists, individuals are considered to es, contact lenses, medical treatment, and/ have a visual impairment. Visual impair- or surgery is unable to correct sight to the ments range from mild impairment to normal range, individuals are said to have total loss of vision. In general, conditions low vision or to be partially sighted (Butler, involving the eye that result in visual 1997). The term legal blindness describes impairment can be categorized as follows: both those who have total loss of vision • Refractive errors and those who have some remaining visu- • Difﬁculty with coordination of the eyes al function but are severely handicapped • Opacities of the eye by visual impairment. In the United States, • Injuries to the eye legal blindness has been deﬁned as follows: • Damage secondary to other conditions 1. Visual acuity not exceeding 20/200 or • Degenerative changes of the eye worse in the better eye with correct- Visual impairments may be temporary, ing lenses reversible, progressive, or permanent and 2. Central ﬁeld of vision limited to an may involve the following: angle of 20 degrees or less • Central ﬁeld of vision: Individuals are able to see images in the periphery of CONDITIONS CAUSING VISUAL the visual ﬁeld but not images in the IMPAIRMENT OR BLINDNESS center. Rarely, individuals have myopia (nearsightedness), results from complete lack of color vision with elongation of the eyeball so that light rays associated low visual acuity (achro- focus on a point in front of the retina. Individuals with this condition have good • Binocular vision: Individuals have dif- visual acuity for close objects but difﬁcul- ﬁculty with the coordinated use of ty seeing objects in the distance. Indi- unnoticeable to the individual, it may be viduals with hyperopia have good visual distracting and noticeable to others. Another type of refractive error, or in which the eyes are crossed, turning astigmatism, results from irregularity of inward. It may result from unequal ocu- the shape of the cornea or at times the lar muscle tone or from a neurological con- lens so that vision is distorted. It can often be corrected by surgery, hyperopia, and astigmatism can occur at corrective lenses, medications, or a com- any age. Presbyopia is a condition usually asso- Suppression amblyopia (lazy eye) is a ciated with aging in which there is grad- condition in which one eye does not de- ual loss of accommodation due to loss of velop good vision, usually because of stra- elasticity of the lens and weakening of the bismus. Individuals with presby- an early age by placing a patch over the opia must hold small objects and printed eye. The eye usually responds to early material farther and farther away to see treatment and the condition is corrected. Refractive errors are usually remedied Opacities of the Eye with corrective lenses. A surgical proce- dure called radial keratotomy (discussed lat- Opacities of the Cornea er in the chapter) is now often performed to correct myopia. The procedure attempts Any condition, including injuries, in- to correct nearsightedness by altering the ﬂammation, or disease of the cornea, that shape of the cornea, causing it to ﬂatten. Because of its rich nerve supply, inﬂammation or injury to the cornea can To achieve good vision, both eyes must cause severe pain. Prompt treatment of a work together so that images from each corneal inﬂammation can prevent subse- eye can fuse into one single image.
Chronic Illness and Disability Through the Life Cycle 11 Physical limitations may also inhibit being of individuals and their families order 100 mg extra super levitra free shipping impotence nerve, as individuals’ efforts to build intimate rela- well as on their identity cheap extra super levitra 100mg overnight delivery impotence with prostate cancer, self-concept, and tionships or to maintain the relationships self-esteem. At this established roles and associated responsi- developmental stage, established relation- bilities within the family. At the same ships are likely to be recent, and the lev- time, individuals’ partners, even when the el of commitment and willingness to make relationship is long term, may be reeval- necessary sacriﬁces may vary. They may per- on the nature of the condition, procre- ceive chronic illness or disability as a ation may be difﬁcult or impossible, or, if violation of their own well-being, and the individual already has young children, they may choose to leave the relationship. In some cases the family’s Ideally, older adults have adapted to the overprotectiveness may prevent them triumphs and disappointments of life and from having experiences appropriate to have accepted their own life and immi- their own age group. Although physical limitations associated with normal aging are variable, Chronic Illness or Disability in older adults often experience diminished Middle Age physical strength and stamina, as well as losses of visual and hearing acuity. Illness Individuals in middle age are generally or disability during older adulthood can established in their career, have a commit- pose physical or cognitive limitations in ted relationship, and are often providing addition to those due to aging. The spouse guidance to their own children as they or signiﬁcant others of the same age group leave the family to establish their own may also have decreased physical stami- careers and families. At the same time, na, making physical care of individuals middle-aged individuals may be assuming with chronic illness or disability more dif- greater responsibility for their own elder- ﬁcult. When older adults with chronic ill- ly parents, who may be becoming increas- ness or disability are unable to attend to ingly fragile and dependent. During their own needs or when care in the home middle age, individuals may begin to is unmanageable, they may ﬁnd it neces- reassess their goals and relationships as sary to surrender their own lifestyle and they begin to recognize their own mortal- move to another environment for care and ity and limited remaining time. Many individuals in the older Illness or disability during middle age age group live on a ﬁxed retirement in- can interfere with further occupational come, and the additional expenses associ- development and may even result in ear- ated with chronic illness or disability place ly retirement. Such changes can have a signiﬁcant strain on an already tight bud- signiﬁcant impact on the economic well- get. Not all older individuals, of course, have 12 CHAPTER 1 PSYCHOSOCIAL AND FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF CHRONIC ILLNESS AND DISABILITY retirement beneﬁts, savings, or other re- which is also determined by social and sources to draw on in time of ﬁnancial need. OTHER ISSUES IN CHRONIC Chronic illness or disability forces an ILLNESS AND DISABILITY individual to alter his or her self-image to accommodate associated changes. Factors Self-Concept and Self-Esteem inﬂuencing the degree of alteration include: • the visibility of change Self-concept is tied to self-esteem and per- • the functional signiﬁcance of the sonal identity. It can be deﬁned as individ- change uals’ perceptions and beliefs about their • the speed with which change occurred own strengths and weaknesses, as well as • the importance of physical change or others’ perceptions of them. Self-esteem associated functional limitations to can be deﬁned as “the evaluative compo- the individual reactions of others nent of an individual’s self concept” (Moore et al. It is often thought of as the assessment of one’s own self- The degree to which an altered self- worth with regard to attained qualities image is perceived by the individual in a and performance (Gledhill et al. A negative and success or failure in the workplace self-concept can produce negative re- (Cusack, 2000). Consequently, self-concept has a ment is not always proportional to the signiﬁcant impact on interactions with reaction it provokes. Change considered others and on the psychological well- minimal by one individual may be con- being of the individual. Changes do not have to be visible in or- Body Image der to alter body image. Burn scars on parts of the body normally covered by Body image, an important part of self- clothing or the introduction of an artiﬁ- concept, involves individuals’ mental view cial opening or stoma such as with colo- of their body with regard to appearance stomy may cause signiﬁcant alteration in and ability to perform various physical body image even though physical changes tasks. It is inﬂuenced by bodily sensations, are not readily apparent to others. Body image also changes is not only the way individuals perceive over time as one’s appearance, capabilities, themselves, but also the way they perceive and functional status change over the life others as seeing them. It is inﬂuenced by each individual’s one’s body can be a barrier to psycholog- personal conception of attractiveness, ical well-being, social interactions, func- The Impact of Uncertainty 13 tional capacity, and workplace adjust- als from reaching their full potential. Consequently, the ultimate goal is an effort to avoid stigma, individuals may to help individuals adapt to changes deny, minimize, or ignore their condition brought about by chronic illness or disabil- and/or treatment recommendations, even ity, integrating those changes into a restruc- though it is detrimental to their welfare. It is possible to reduce the negative impact of societal stigma by Stigma is a signiﬁcant factor in many helping individuals establish a sense of chronic illnesses and disabilities.
A variety of Ca2 channels have been described generic extra super levitra 100 mg online impotence vasectomy, characterised by their kinetics generic 100 mg extra super levitra erectile dysfunction treatments vacuum, single-channel properties, pharmacology (especially sensitivity to different toxins) and molecular structure (Table 2. Those primarily responsible for transmitter release belong to the N (a1B), P/Q (a1A) and R classes (a1E). So far, no pharmacological agents capable of uniquely modifying Ca2 channels involved in transmitter release have been described (other than polypeptide toxins). These, and other (L-type, T-type), Ca2 channels are also variably present in neurons somata and/or dendrites, where they contribute to the regulation of neural activity in other ways (see below). REGULATION OFCa2 CHANNELS BY NEUROTRANSMITTERS N and P/Q channels are susceptible to inhibition by many neurotransmitters and extra- cellular mediators that act on receptors coupling to Pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins (primarily Go) Ð for example, noradrenaline (via a2 receptors), acetylcholine (via M2 and M4 muscarinic receptors), GABA (via GABA-B receptors), opioid peptides (via m=d receptors) and adenosine (via A2 receptors) (see Fig. Inhibition results from the release of the bg subunits of the trimeric (abg) G-protein following its activation by the receptor. The bg subunit then binds to the Ca2 channel in such a way as to shift its voltage sensitivity to more positive potentials, so that the channels do not open as readily during a rapid membrane depolarisation. One interpretation of this is that the binding of the bg subunits is itself voltage- dependent. This is thought to provide the principal mechanism responsible for presynaptic inhibition, whereby neurotransmitters inhibit their own release (autoinhibition) during high-frequency synaptic transmission. This process can be replicated by applying exogenous transmitters or their analogues (see Fig. Records show intra- axonal recordings from (a) a regenerating sciatic nerve axon following nerve crush; (b) a normal sciatic nerve axon; and (c) a demyelinated ventral root axon after treatment with lysopho- sphatidylcholine. Note that 4-AP prolongs the action potential in (a) and (c) but not in (b). Thus, current through 4-AP-sensitive K channels contributes to action potential repolarisation in premyelinated or demyelinated mammalian axons, whereas in normal myelinated axons repolarisation is entirely due to Na channel inactivation. Ion Channel Organization of the Myelinated Fiber, p 48±54 (1990) with permission from Elsevier Science 40 NEUROTRANSMITTERS, DRUGS AND BRAIN FUNCTION Figure 2. Currents were evoked by two successive 10 ms steps from 770 mV to 0 mV, separated by a prepulse to 90 mV. Note that the transient inhibition produced by NA (mediated by the G-protein Go) and the tonic inhibition produced by the G-protein b1g2 subunits were temporarily reversed by the 90 mV depolarisation. Note that pretreatment with Pertussis toxin (PTX), which prevents coupling of the adrenoceptor to Go, abolished inhibition. Reproduced with permission) CONTROL OFNEURONAL ACTIVITY 41 and suppressed by blocking the presynaptic receptors with antagonist drugs, which thereby selectively enhance the release of individual transmitters. ION CHANNELS AFFECTING THE PATTERN AND FREQUENCY OF ACTION POTENTIAL DISCHARGES The opening of Na ion channels for the initiation of neuronal depolarisation and action potential generation, as described above, can be induced by excitatory neuro- transmitters acting on receptors that are directly linked to cation channels. These include glutamate AMPA receptors (Chapters 3 and 10) and ACh nicotinic receptors (Chapter 6). The inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA has an opposing effect through receptors (GABAA) that are directly linked to the opening of chloride channels, inducing an influx of Cl7 ions and subsequent hyperpolarisation (Chapters 1 and 11). There are, however, a number of other ion channels, generally for K or Ca2, that have a more subtle controlling effect on neuronal activity. Their opening may be initiated by (or dependent on) preceding changes in membrane potential and ion flux, but they can be affected indirectly by various neurotransmitters, e. The role of these channels in controlling the overall activity of neurons is clearly important and needs to be considered. However, most nerve cells possess other K channels which are opened during nerve cell discharges but which stay open much longer. These do not contribute much to the repolarisation of individual action potentials but instead affect the excitability of the neuron over periods of hundreds of milliseconds or even seconds. Two principal types of channel having this effect have been identified and their properties are summarised in Table 2. This means that they are activated by the Ca2 influx through voltage-gated Ca2 channels when these are opened during a somatic or dendritic action potential, or during trains of action potentials.
Public telephones equipped with ampliﬁer Hard-Wired Systems (Personal Listening handsets cheap 100mg extra super levitra with visa erectile dysfunction age 80, although not always readily Systems) available safe 100mg extra super levitra erectile dysfunction in the morning, are becoming more common. These telephones are usually identiﬁed Hard-wired systems are individual devices with an access sign. The systems must have a direct connection to the sound source using Telecommunication display devices (TDDs), either a microphone or a direct plug-in also called teletypewriters or TTYs, are used wire to convey ampliﬁed speech signal to transmit conversations in printed format directly to the receiver (a hearing aid, ear- over regular telephone lines. Individuals phone headset, or neck loop) worn by the on both ends of the line must have com- individual. When a microphone is used, patible devices with which to type their the speaker speaks into the microphone, messages and visualize the printed mes- speech travels through a cord, and then sage on a screen or paper. If one individ- directly reaches the receiver worn by the ual does not have a TDD, a third-party listener. When a plug-in is used, a wire is system may be used or a relay operator can plugged into the sound source (such as a transmit the message to the other individ- television or radio) and the sound travels ual. Telecommunication relay services al- through the wire directly to the individ- low a person using TDD to communicate ual’s personal receiver. Using hard-wired with another person using a voice tele- systems with television or radio enables in- phone, with the relay operator acting as dividuals with hearing loss to increase the an interpreter. Special software is also volume on their personal receiver without available that allows a personal comput- altering the volume for others in the room. Computers are sonal listening systems and are more use- also allowing greater access for deaf and ful in one-to-one communication than in hard-of-hearing individuals with e-mail. Assistive Listening Devices Large Area Systems Assistive listening devices include a wide variety of equipment other than hearing Background noise competes with speech aids that can be used by persons with sounds, creating a more challenging lis- hearing loss. Some may be used independ- tening environment for individuals with ently, and others supplement the hearing hearing loss. Since individuals with hearing loss fects sound quality in large groups and may have more difﬁculty perceiving the brings a more distorted signal to hard-of- high-pitched sounds common in speech, hearing individuals. Finally, distance is the or hearing in background noise, assistive third factor that has a negative effect for 162 CHAPTER 5 HEARING LOSS AND DEAFNESS those with hearing loss. These systems are best suited in area devices to enhance hearing in group rooms or meeting areas without windows, settings are available: since sunlight affects the signal. Audio loop systems are made appears on a corner or at the bottom of the up of a microphone, ampliﬁer, and coil of screen. Real-time caption services display wire (also called induction coil) that loops the text on the video monitor immediate- around the seating area. All televisions manufactured after July through the coil, creating an electromag- 1993 that are 13 inches or larger must be netic ﬁeld that can be picked up by the equipped with a closed caption option. Old- telecoil of a hearing aid that has been acti- er models can utilize a decoder that is con- vated through the T-switch or push but- nected to the television. The telecoil acts as an antenna and and educational ﬁlms are also available picks up the electromagnetic energy, de- through various distribution services. In- dividuals using the audio loop must sit within or near the loop for it to operate Alerting Devices effectively. Audio loop systems can be per- Hearing enables individuals to respond manently installed in public meeting to sounds such as sirens, the horn of an rooms, churches, or theaters or can be set approaching car, the doorbell, or a baby’s up as needed. FM systems are wireless and ability to respond to everyday environ- work much the same as listening to FM mental sounds, potentially increasing the radios. Sound is picked up and transmit- risk of accidents and possibly increasing ted through a frequency-modulated band feelings of insecurity. Various devices and directly to a receiver worn by the individ- systems are available commercially to alert ual with hearing loss. FM systems enhance listen- ampliﬁcation of sound; or tactile cues, such ing in noisy environments by improving as a vibrator. The dog the installation of an infrared light emit- does not bark but rather makes physical ter that is usually piggybacked onto an contact with the individual and then runs existing public address system. Only one- complete language that contains linguis- third of the English language is visible on tic components that constitute a sophis- the lips; therefore, individuals who speech- ticated, independent language. It is the read often supplement meaning by ob- native language of Deaf culture.