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Course Outline Course Staff - Dr Mark Hill cheap finax 1 mg line symptoms 9f diabetes, Office: Wallace Wurth Building buy 1 mg finax with mastercard medicine 2020, room G20 (ground floor), Email: m. The School will use that email account as the official electronic channel to communicate with each student. To examine the common principles and differences underlying normal and abnormal development of vertebrates. To cover emerging technologies, such as stem cells, genomic analysis and the use of transgenic and dysfunctional mouse mutants in research. In addition, the final lecture is an opportunity to review course material and ask questions about difficult concepts. As part of the course I also encourage you to develop the general scientific skills of critical thinking, analysis and scientific writing. Student Contact University policy concerning student contact is: ” When a student is enrolled into University of New South Wales, he or she will be automatically issued with a University email account. The School will use that email account as the official electronic channel to communicate with each student. Student Online Pages Each student in the current course has their own Wiki page Student Pages for assessment items and course feedback. In addition groups of students have a group project page to be prepared online as part of their assessment. Group Assessment will be an online small group (4-5 student) embryology project prepared throughout the semester, assessed by peers and the course coordinator. Laboratory Assessment will be a series of short answer questions prepared throughout the semester relating to embryology lecture and laboratory content. Theory examination will be an internal exam within the session two exam period and will conform to University examination guidelines. Supplementary examinations will only be offered if the student is unable to attend the final examination for medical or misadventure reasons. Assignment and Lab Project Dates Current planned submission and project assessment dates are shown in the printed course schedule (page 6). Textbooks Either of the textbooks listed below are recommended for this course and page references to both are given in each lecture. Knowingly permitting your work to be copied by another student may also be considered to be plagiarism. Note that an assessment item produced in oral, not written, form, or involving live presentation, may similarly contain plagiarised material. The inclusion of the thoughts or work of another with attribution appropriate to the academic discipline does not amount to plagiarism. The Learning Centre website is main repository for resources for staff and students on plagiarism and academic honesty. Students are also reminded that careful time management is an important part of study and one of the identified causes of plagiarism is poor time management. Students should allow sufficient time for research, drafting, and the proper referencing of sources in preparing all assessment items. Used with kind permission from the University of Newcastle † Adapted with kind permission from the University of Melbourne. Administrative Matters Attendance Requirements Students are required to attend each lecture and laboratory unless given special permission. Firstly, an introduction to the course, its content and assessment and an opportunity to ask questions. Development in the early 20th century can also be seen in some Historic Movies 1920-1960 (http://embryology. Late 20th Century There are too many embryological breakthroughs in the late 20th century to briefly list here. Remember that these award dates reflect findings that have proven to be scientific key breakthroughs from earlier dates.
To maintain the proper osmotic concentration of the extra cellular fluid to excrete wastes and to maintain proper kidney function the body must excrete at least 450ml of urine per day cheap finax 1 mg visa symptoms e coli. The volume and concentration of urine is controlled by: - Antidiuretic hormone - Aldestrone - The Renin – angiotensin mechanism 349 Human Anatomy and Physiology 12 safe 1 mg finax medications names and uses. Steps of urination are: Conscious desire to urinate Pelvic diaphram muscle relax Smooth muscle of Urinary bladder neck Moves Urinary bladder down, outlet Opens, wall Contracts & urine stretch, and wall stretch ejects Receptors are stimulated 350 Human Anatomy and Physiology Study Questions 1. The apex of each renal pyramid end in the a) Cortical region b) Papilla c) Juxta medullary region d) Capsule e) Tubule 2. The inner most layer of the ureters is the a) Mucosa b) Muscularis c) Adventitia d) Longitudinal layer e) Circular layer 3. The kidney function in all of the following except a) Acid – base balance b) An endocrine organ c) By removing metabolic waste d) By removing excess carbon dioxide e) By maintaining osmotic concentration 4. An increased volume of urine formation would follow:- a) Inhibition of tubular sodium re-absorption b) A fall in plasma osmolarity c) A fall in plasma volume d) a and b e) a, b and c 5. The volume or chemical makeup of these fluids whenever deviates even slightly from normal, disease results. The correct proportion of water and electrolytes in the water and proper acid base balance are necessary for life to exist. Loss of 10% of total body water usually produce lethargy, fever and dryness on mucous membrane and a 20% loss is fatal. Extra cellular fluids found as interstitial fluid (the immediate environment of body cells), blood plasma and lymph, cerebrospinal, synovial, fluids of the eye & ear, pleural, pericardial, peritoneal, gastrointestinal and glomerular filtrate of the kidney. The concentration of water in the interstitial fluid is slightly higher than the concentration of water in plasma. The plasma proteins are responsible for this difference 354 Human Anatomy and Physiology A B Figure: 13. Hydrostatic pressure: it is the force exerted by a fluid against the surface of the compartment containing fluid. Osmotic pressure: Is the pressure that must be applied to a solution on one side of a selectively permeable membrane to prevent the Osmotic flow of water across the membrane from a compartment of pure water. When there is shift in the pressure of water to wards the interstitial space, accumulation of fluid in the space occur. Such accumulation of water produces distention of the tissue which appears as puffiness on the surface of the body. Causes of edema may be plasma protean leakage decreased protein synthesis, increased capillary or venous hydrostatic pressure, obstructed lymphatic vessels and inflammatory reaction. Under normal condition water is taken in to and excreted from the body, so it matches to maintain homeostasis. Drinking of water is regulated by nervous mechanism (thirst center in the brain) together with hormonal mechanism (Antidiuretic hormone). Kidneys are the organs regulated by homeostatic feed back response they are responsible for excreting most of the water from the body. These three electrolytes are particularly important in maintaining body function and normal water distribution among the fluid compartment. Enzymes, hormones and the distribution 360 Human Anatomy and Physiology of ions can all be affected by the concentration of hydrogen H ion. H Homeostatic maintenance of an acceptable P range in the extra cellular fluid is accomplished by three mechanisms: 1. This task is accomplished in renal tubules, where + hydrogen & ammonium ions are secreted in to urine, when H is excreted sodium is exchanged. Movement of water from one body compartment to another is controlled by a) Atmospheric pressure b) Hydrostatic pressure c) Osmotic pressure d) a & c only e) b & c only 364 Human Anatomy and Physiology 4. The function of electrolytes in the body include a) Contributing to body structure b) Facilitating the movement of water between body compartments c) Maintaining acid – base balance d) a and b only e) a, b, & c 5. Reproduction by means of sexual intercourse produces new human beings and hereditary traits to be passed from both parents to their children’s. The sex hormones play an important role both in the development and function of the reproductive organ and in sexual behavior & drives.
In addition to the anthropometric assessments buy 1mg finax fast delivery medicine hat news, you can also assess clinical signs and symptoms that might indicate potential speciﬁcnutrient deﬁciency generic 1 mg finax amex medications you cant take with grapefruit. Clinical methods of assessing nutritional status involve checking signs of deﬁciency at speciﬁc places on the body or asking the patient whether they have any symptoms that might suggest nutrient deﬁciency from the patient. Clinical signs of nutrient deﬁciency include: pallor (on the palm of the hand or the conjunctiva of the eye), Bitot’s spots on the eyes, pitting oedema, goitre and severe visible wasting (these signs are explained below). If a shallow print persists on both feet, then the child has nutritional oedema (pitting oedema). Sagging skin and buttocks indicates visible severe wasting (as you can see in Figure 5. Sign/symptom Nutritional abnormality Pale: palms, conjunctiva, tongue Anaemia: may be due to the deﬁciency Gets tired easily; loss of appetite of iron, folic, vitamin B12, acid, copper, shortness of breath protein or vitamin B6 Bitot’s spots (whitish patchy triangular Vitamin A deﬁciency lesions on the side of the eye) Goitre (swelling on the front of the Iodine deﬁciency disorder neck) ■ Aster is a one-year-old girl who was brought to your health post by her mother, with a complaint of body swelling and poor appetite for one month. What is the nutritional problem Aster is suffering from and what are the indicators? You can ask what the family or the mother and the child have eaten over the past 24 hours and use this data to calculate the dietary diversity score. Dietary diversity is a measure of the number of food groups consumed over a reference period, usually 24 hours. These can be represented in the food guide pyramid which you read about in Study Session 2 and which is reproduced in Figure 5. You may recall from Study Session 2 the base or widest part of the pyramid indicates the need for higher quantities of consumption of carbohydrate source foods, while the tip is narrow, indicating the need for eating only small amounts of fats and sweet things. If a person consumes any examples of the food type from each of the six groups in 24 hours, we can say that their dietary diversity score is six. Dietary diversity score is an indicator of both the balance of nutrient consumption and the level of food security (or insecurity) in the household. The higher the dietary diversity score in a family, themorediversiﬁed and balanced the diet is and the more food-secure the household. Whichever measurements you are taking you should remember that it is important to follow procedures correctly and take accurate measurements that ensure the quality of data generated about the individuals you are responsible for in your community. Summary of Study Session 5 In Study Session 5 you have learned that: 1 Nutritional assessment is the interpretation of data to determine whether a person or groups of people are well nourished or malnourished (over nourished or under-nourished). Write your answers in your Study Diary and discuss them with your Tutor at the next Study Support Meeting. You can check your answers with the Notes on the Self-Assessment Questions at the end of the Module. In Study Session 5 you learned how to assess the nutritional status of children and adults. You are now going to look at how to use the knowledge and skills you learnt in that study session to identify children and adults with nutritional problems. You will also learn about acute and chronic malnutrition in the community and something about their causes. The knowledge acquired will enable you to identify children with malnutrition in your community at the earliest possible stage and to consider strategies you can use to manage the situation effectively. Learning Outcomes for Study Session 6 When you have studied this session, you should be able to: 6. Wasting is usually the result of recent food insecurity, infection or acute illness such as diarrhoea. Measurement of wasting or thinness is often used to assess the severity of an emergency situation, with severe wasting being highly linked with the death of a child. It’s often associated with poor development during childhood and is one of the harmful effects of poverty. Stunting is commonly used as an indicator for development, as it is highly related with poverty. Forty seven percent of children under ﬁve years of age are considered to be stunted and this is the fourth highest percentage in Africa. Thirty eight percent of children under ﬁve years of age were underweight and 11% were severely underweight. Based 68 Study Session 6 Common Nutritional Problems in Ethiopia on mother’s subjective assessment of the size of the baby at birth, 21% of births were reported to be very small and 7% were reported as smaller than average.