X. Kor-Shach. New Jersey Institute of Technology.
As a stimulus for discussion: short open-ended sections of video or film can be made to stimulate discussion among students discount 150mg cleocin fast delivery acne under the skin. Students respond to the material as it is presented and both the stimulus and their responses are then discussed discount 150 mg cleocin visa skin care in your 20s. This we have found to be valuable for starting discussion about attitudes dealing with emotional situations. Sometimes it is possible to locate suitable stimulus material in old films that would otherwise have no use. As a means of distribution and relay: carefully placed video-cameras can be used to distribute pictures to a separate viewing room or even to relay them to remote locations. An obvious example of this is their use in operating theatres to enable a large number of students to witness an operation. As an information storage system: video has a role to play in storing information for later teaching or for research use. For example, a recording can be made (with permission) by a student of a patient interview which can be reviewed later with a tutor at a convenient time and place. Film clips, stills, models, interviews, recorded sounds and graphics can be recorded, assembled and edited to make a teaching programme. Today, presentation packages provide an accessible tool to achieve the same kind of outcome. As a magnification medium: many teachers find that video is a handy tool to ‘blow-up’ the action or to display pictures of a demonstration. These examples of video and film use are by no means exhaustive nor are they mutually exclusive in their application. For example, in teaching anatomy, video is used to magnify materials, to distribute and display this in a large laboratory (thus ensuring that all students are seeing the same thing) and sometimes to record the information as a resource for independent learning. It is becoming less likely that you will be called on to produce videos for use in teaching. However, if you do, we recommend that you review the guidelines on making educational videos contained in earlier editions of this book. PRINTED MATERIAL Books, journals, handouts and study guides carry a very large part of the instructional burden in teaching and will continue to do so in both paper and electronic media. Yet, often, surprisingly little thought is given by university teachers to the design and use of these important materials. Design We strongly recommend Hartley’s book as a reference to have beside you. Over-organisation of the text does not help the reader and may actually interfere with learning. For example, in a paper-based system, you may wish to institute a system of coloured papers for different kinds of material you prepare for students (e. The basic principles for layout and design of printed materials are outlined in Figure 9. The variety of fonts available in personal computer software makes it necessary to select with care. Have a look at the typographical layouts in better-quality news- papers and journals for ideas that you can put into practice. Using printed material Handouts can serve a number of useful purposes in your teaching, but this medium is frequently misused because the material is often simply distributed to students and then quickly forgotten. Remember that you can produce handouts with the presentation software to support a formal lecture and that you can distribute them via the Internet. Supplementary information, or perhaps a copy of a paper you think is important, can also be given in a handout. How you use the handout in your teaching is a crucial matter, We suggest that your students’ attention be directed to the handout by discussing a particular 180 definition, reading through a brief list of points with students, or asking them to fill in some part of it with additional information. If your students have to use the handout in the teaching session, it is likely that they will remember it and not simply file it away to be forgotten. Prescribed reading Prescribed reading of textbooks and journals is another matter that warrants your careful attention. Some teachers swamp their students with lists of books and articles to be read and give little thought to how students might manage the task. If you want the students to undertake some reading, then consider the following points: What are students expected to achieve by undertaking the reading?
Said goodbye to formal education and mainstream medicine and went into the alternative discount 150 mg cleocin amex skin care talk. These key encounters and experiences are important because it is through them that alternative ideology is more deeply internalized by the individual buy cleocin 150 mg fast delivery skin care shiseido. In other words, an individual’s “commitment to a healer/client relationship,” in particular, is instrumental in the adoption of alternative belief systems (Deierlein 1994:180). Deepening commitment to alternative ideology is, in turn, what propels people along the continuum of identity change. For example, it was the intensity of Marie’s belief in alternative therapies that inspired her to become an alternative practitioner: “I became a certified reflexologist because I believe in those things so much” (emphasis mine). CHANGES IN SELF-PERCEPTION Adopting a healer identity was one type of self-change experienced by the people who took part in this study; however, it was not the only one. For many informants, participation in alternative therapies, and adoption of alternative health and healing ideologies, led to changes in their subjective perceptions of self. In particular, it allowed them to re-define aspects of personal identity, that “unique collection of life history items that comes to be attached to the individual” (Goffman 1963:57). That participation in alternative approaches to health care can have this effect has been observed in other research on the users of alternative therapies (Csordas 1983; Easthope 1993; Glik 1988 1990; McGuire 1983, 1987; Pawluch et al. For instance, in describing the use of creative visualization among participants in a metaphysical healing group (MHG), Glik (1988:1201) reports that “In MHGs images of light emanating from and surrounding the self protected from dark forces and to some degree transformed self and others” (emphasis mine). According to Natalie, “I heard about that [course] through the healing circle; somebody mentioned to me that they were going to take it. Some told me that using alternative therapies altered their entire lives or their whole selves. Others perceived these changes to self to have occurred primarily on the level of their value systems or their personalities. For instance, some informants felt that using alternative approaches to health and healing impacted on their lives in some fundamental and per- vasive way. In Hanna’s words, The idea is that since you’re affecting the whole nervous system and hence the whole body you can have profound physical and emotional change happening. If I have a holistic perspective I know that I’m also working with someone’s emotions and their whole self.... It’s not like you’re just doing a physical thing: you change them emotionally and you change their attitude. Natalie also told me that her alternative therapies are oriented towards healing a person’s whole life: “Their life, mentally and physically and spiritually. For example, Roger told me the following: Alternative Healing and the Self | 87 I quickly saw that it had applications for the work I was doing with the handicapped people, just for working on the general organization of the nervous system, the musculature, the organization of the person in general. One of the reasons I think that the Feldenkrais work touched me so personally when I experienced the work were some of the effects on just balancing and organizing the system, the nervous system, the person. Changes in Personality Almost all of the people who spoke with me felt that their use of alternative therapies resulted in changes to one or more aspects of their personalities. For instance, Laura felt she had gained confidence and become a more assertive person through her use of alternative therapies: “At the time I wasn’t a very assertive person, I don’t believe that any more about myself.... For example, Pam believed that an alternative approach resulted in what she saw as a remarkable change in her daughter’s entire personality: I removed all the wheat that you could just see, the bread, the buns. And within three weeks there was a remarkable change, change in personality, the temper tantrums left, the disorganization left. Hanna also believed that several aspects of her personality had changed and that she had become a calmer, more tolerant, more contented, and a less worried person: I’m a lot more level. When you do yoga for several years you go through different levels of experiences and you learn not to question what’s happening to you.... It means more contentment because you’re not 88 | Using Alternative Therapies: A Qualitative Analysis worried. I feel a lot more self-sufficient, I don’t worry about the future any more. Similarly, Brenda believed she had become a more patient and tolerant person, less argumentative and judgmental, more honest with herself, and, in general, happier: I don’t judge anybody; the other thing is happiness. Also relationships, I was always angry with something, I was never satisfied, everything was wrong.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt buy cleocin 150mg lowest price acne 4 months postpartum, who contracted polio at age thirty-nine order cleocin 150 mg free shipping acne and diet, was virtually never seen publicly in his wheelchair. Yet he became the om- niscient, de facto “poster child” of his National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis. Brainstorming about how to raise money from a nation just emerging from economic depression, the radio and vaudeville entertainer Eddie Cantor suggested that people send 10 cent contributions directly to Roosevelt at the White House: “Call it the March of Dimes” (Gallagher 1994, 150). Cantor and the Lone Ranger broadcast Roosevelt’s appeal, and within days, envelopes containing dimes overwhelmed the postal service. The polio vaccine became possible because Roo- sevelt’s foundation raised millions of research dollars (Gallagher 1994). These mass solicitations nevertheless solidify one stereotype of walking 16 W ho Has Mobility Difficulties problems—blameless people, courageously confronting adversity and strug- gling to walk, crutches in hand. Despite their exertions, they seemingly have little control over their futures, waiting for the charity-supported research to suddenly sprout a cure. In an America that celebrates independence and self- determination, this stereotype implicitly marginalizes people. Equally troubling, however, is holding people accountable for their physical impairments in deﬁance of their disease—a slippery slope be- tween hope and despair. For twenty years, she had periodically experienced episodic, unnerving sensory symptoms but never knew why. A physician friend had privately diag- nosed MS, but he had not told Joni or her husband. Now all of a sudden, Joni began having serious trouble walking, and the physician revealed his diagnosis. Her husband and his male friends, including Sam, rallied around and mapped out an exercise program “to improve her function. Over- whelmed by this onslaught motivated by true affection and concern, Joni felt powerless to make them understand that her legs now felt as if they were encased in concrete, that fatigue drained every scrap of strength. Sam told me later that the husband and his friends had abandoned their physical ﬁtness regime, but I heard doubt in Sam’s voice. The second stereotyped cause, catastrophic accidents, is sometimes shadowed by hinted conjectures about fault—was the person somehow to blame? One “innocent” subgroup is injured either by seemingly random violence, such as being struck by a car, or by mishaps occurring during so- cially acceptable activities, such as bicycling, skiing, or contact sports. In contrast, a more suspect subgroup involves people injured by their own recklessness, such as driving while drunk. Persons claiming injuries at work and seeking disability compensation, “workers’ comp,” are particularly problematic (chapter 9). Soldiers return- ing from war, however, are a special class of people injured “at work. Roosevelt himself, usually unwilling to be seen publicly in his wheelchair, made a special gesture conveying his respect for troops injured in World War II. During a 1944 visit to Hawaii to discuss Paciﬁc strategy, Roosevelt went to an Oahu hospital, and according to an aide, The President did something which affected us all very deeply. He asked a secret service man to wheel him slowly through all the wards that were occupied by veterans who had lost one or more Who Has Mobility Difficulties / 17 arms and legs. He wanted to display himself and his useless legs to those boys who would have to face the same bitterness. Public perceptions of veterans’ merit or culpability often depend on views about the war. The in- dividual is left alone with his injury and his self-doubts” (Cleland 1989, 120–21). The common element linking all persons with injuries is the sudden- ness of their change. The seeming randomness of the loss generates fear and fascination— this could happen to anyone in a ﬂash. The overwhelming magnitude of these injuries and their sudden life transformations rivet public attention, especially when they involve celebrities.
The brain Asia have reported BSE purchase 150mg cleocin free shipping acne diet, but in far fewer numbers than in tissue purchase 150mg cleocin with visa skin care 3 months before marriage, particularly in the cortex and cerebellum, becomes Britain. No cases have been detected in the United States (the filled with large open spaces (vacuoles) and becomes spongy U. The “spongiform” part of BSE comes from this tex- rigorous surveillance program). The cause of BSE and CJD, near-exclusivity has yet to be conclusively determined, the 89 BSE and CJD: Ethical issues and socio-economic impact WORLD OF MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY 2001 outbreak of hoof and mouth disease in the United ecule of the transmissible agent. The prototypical prion dis- Kingdom revealed that a common practice has been to feed ease of animals is scrapie, which has been long recognized in cattle “offal,” the ground up waste from the slaughter process. Following 1988, BSE has given rise to considerable infected tissue is a means of spreading the disease. The exact origin of the demic in 1993, approximately 700 cattle were newly affected prions is not known. The epidemic has been linked to changes in the Until the 1900s, scientists believed that the transmission rendering of sheep or cattle carcasses for use as protein sup- of the BSE agent to humans did not occur. However, several plements to feed-meal, suggesting that inadequately inacti- studies conducted in the latter years of the 1990s has cast vated scrapie agent from sheep, cattle or both was the initial doubt on this assumption. Following a legislation banning the feeding of ruminant brain injuries caused in BSE and CJD are identical. It these brain alterations occurred in mice injected with either is still uncertain whether the origins of BSE lie in a mutant brain tissue from BSE-diseased cattle, which was expected, or form of scrapie or if it developed naturally in cattle. Thus, development of CJD could be due to human kuru, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome and consumption of BSE-diseased meat. These diseases are rare and, until The currently held view is that prions from cattle recently, were not considered of any great socio-economic sig- infected with BSE are capable of infecting humans and caus- nificance. For instance, younger people can be The infectivity of prion diseases appears to reside in the prion infected, and the neurological symptoms differ. PrPSc is the abnormal, protease- The existence of a vCJD is based mainly on epidemio- resistant isoform of a normal cellular membrane protein des- logical evidence. Prusiner of the University of species barrier for the transmission of BSE and CJD does not California at San Francisco has long contended that changes in exist. However, the possibility still remains that the contami- conformation underlie the dramatic differences in the proper- nating agent in the meat is really a prion that causes normally ties of the two isoforms; by abnormal molecular folding, CJD, and that this prion is naturally present in cattle but has PrPSc acquires protease resistance and a “catalytic” ability to escaped detection until now. If so, then BSE and CJD infec- recruit more conformational copies of itself from PrPC. PrPSc tions could indeed be confined to non-human and human is remarkably resistant to many procedures that inactivate conventional infectious agents and, therefore, problems have mammals, respectively. Although 90% of prion disease cases CJD disease, ethical issues and socio-economic impact; Latent arise sporadically and a further 10% arise where the family has viruses and diseases some history of the disease, it is an unfortunate fact that about eighty cases of CJD have arisen iatrogenically, that is, as a result of exposure to medical treatment, facilities, or person- nel. Cases of transmission by corneal transplant, transplant of BSE AND CJD: ETHICAL ISSUES AND dura mater, exposure to infected neurosurgical instruments SOCIOBSE and CJD: Ethical issues and socio-economic impact-ECONOMIC IMPACT and electroencephalogram probes, and transplantation of human growth hormone have been confirmed. The outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or The indestructibility of prions creates real problems in “mad cow disease” in the United Kingdom and continental sterilizing surgical instruments; it is basically impossible, and Europe continues to concern beef and dairy producers and the equipment has retained infectivity and caused infection in general public in the United States. This concern has increased patients even after repeated “sterilizations. Neurosurgical equipment is already disposed of that has appeared in people, mostly in the U. Since vCJD is carried heavily by the lym- ease known as variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) phoreticular (blood/lymph) systems, the tonsils, appendix, and appears to be more closely related to BSE in its pathology than most recently, the lymph nodes of vCJD patients have been to traditional CJD. It is therefore assumed that vCJD has found to be full of prions, unlike in patients with classical CJD. There is concern that these lenses could the next infectious disease epidemic which may be contracted spread iatrogenic vCJD. In view of the theoretical been banned in the UK, only the “air puff” method is allowed risk of blood-borne transmission of CJD, some experts recom- now.