By Y. Silvio. University of Pittsburgh.
On the way to the striatum and at the striatum cheap arava 20 mg line medications for ocd, as well as on cells that project down from the cortex of the brain purchase arava 20 mg fast delivery medications you can take while pregnant, there are special receptors for dopamine. Med- ications called dopamine agonists can stimulate these receptors to be more efficient. Some dopamine agonists stimulate one type of receptor; others stimulate more than one. It is believed that in Parkinson’s disease, dopamine is also defi- cient in other parts of the brain. The areas in which these other deficiencies occur may determine which of the secondary symptoms a person with Parkinson’s may develop. Deficiencies of certain other chemical neurotransmitters may also be responsible for sec- ondary symptoms. Patients may develop a few (but usually not all) of the secondary symptoms: a stare reminding one of a facial mask, aches and pains, feelings of extreme restlessness, feelings of fatigue, diffi- culty swallowing (which can cause excess saliva to build up in the mouth, leading to drooling), speech difficulties, shallow breath- ing, watery eyes, dry eyes, a hunched or bent posture, or pro- longed feelings of depression. Still other secondary symptoms may include oily skin, constipation, difficulty voiding the bladder, the feeling of unusual hot and cold sensations (usually in an arm or a leg), sudden excessive sweating, forced closure of the eyelids, dizziness on arising from a bed or a chair, swelling of the feet, and impotence. An important secondary symptom is depression, which afflicts about 50 percent of people with Parkinson’s. In the past, parkin- sonian depression was thought to be merely the psychological con- sequence of facing life with a chronic disease. This remains true in some cases; however, scientists now believe there is a chemical medications and therapies 77 component—the depression that is so common in Parkinson’s may be caused by the same chemical problems in the brain that cause the disease. For years, antidepressant medications have been used both to improve the patient’s state of mind and to relieve symp- toms. Some scientists are evaluating whether depression in Par- kinson’s disease may also be caused by a decreased amount of serotonin, another substance in the brain. One person with Parkinson’s may develop only a few primary and secondary symptoms, which may be different from those developed by the next person. Each person’s Parkinson’s must therefore be treated individually, with medications and dosages tailored to his or her own set of symptoms and drug tolerances. Patients who are aware of the symptoms and the medications used to treat them will be more alert to their own symptoms, more apt to report these thoroughly to their doctors, and more apt to get the most appropriate treatment. If a doctor is not a Parkinson’s specialist, the patient may even be able to educate the doctor to some extent. Certainly, the patient will be able to explore the options more intelligently with his or her medical team. Now that you are aware of the symptoms of parkinsonism, you will want to know more about the specific medications that treat them. And you need to know about the side effects of these med- ications, so that you can tell the difference between the symptoms of your Parkinson’s and the symptoms of overmedication and drug intolerance. When you report your symptoms, you will help the doctor and yourself if you distinguish between the symptoms of Par- kinson’s and the symptoms of overmedication or drug intolerance. First, when Parkinson’s is newly diagnosed and the symptoms are very mild, the doctor may prescribe no medication at all. Until the new drug deprenyl (Eldepryl) became available in the United States in the summer of 1989, it was thought that medication should be delayed until parkinsonian symptoms affected the patient’s life 78 living well with parkinson’s too adversely to remain untreated. Deprenyl, also called "selegi- line," was discovered by Joseph Knoll in Hungary in 1964, has been used in Europe for many years, and is marketed in Europe under the trade names Eldepryl and Jumex. This research group also found that early treatment with deprenyl permitted patients to delay the need for Sinemet and to continue working at their jobs longer than untreated patients could. Other research in Europe and the United States shows that deprenyl is also helpful at other stages of the disease. Scientists think that it may slow down the destruction of cells in the sub- stantia nigra, thus slowing down the progression of the disease. Lower dosages of Sinemet reduce the side effects and permit longer use over the years. For some people with Parkinson’s, deprenyl smooths out the "on-off " and "wearing off " phenomena.
The observed upward trend in control site visit rates during the last three quarters was found to be significant order arava 10 mg medications or drugs, as shown by the vari- ables for quarters 4 and 5 buy cheap arava 10mg online symptoms 0f parkinson disease. Further, the significant interaction term for the last quarter (demo × quarter 5) and its odds ratio of 0. Although this decline could be the start of a trend related to the use of the guideline, it would be necessary to track this measure for subsequent periods of time before attributing such an effect to the guideline. Also of interest, all the demographic characteristics of the low back pain patients had significant independent effects on the frequency of follow-up visits. Older patients and officers had fewer follow-up visits than younger enlisted patients, and females had more visits than males. The omitted group for the model is quarter 2, which is the baseline time period that immediately preceded the start of implementation activities by the demonstration MTFs. REFERRALS TO SPECIALTY CARE The results of the logistic regression analysis of trends in specialty care referrals are reported in Table C. Site B was excluded be- cause of its unexplained escalation in referrals of low back pain pa- tients to orthopedics, which would confound any trends for the other facilities (see Figures 6. Overall, the demonstration sites were less likely to refer acute low back pain patients to specialty care than the control sites, as shown by the significant and low odds ratio (0. The significant coefficients and low odds ratios for the variables for quarters 4 and 5 indicate a downward trend in control site specialty referrals during the demonstration pe- riod. None of the interaction terms for the three demonstration quarters (quarters 3 through 5) is significant and their odds ratios Multivariate Analyses of Low Back Pain Metrics 157 Table C. The omitted group for the model is quarter 2, which is the baseline time period that immediately preceded the start of implementation activities by the demonstration MTFs. Also of interest, older active duty personnel were two to four times more likely to be referred for specialty care for their acute low back pain than were younger personnel. In addition, officers were more likely then enlisted patients to be referred to specialists. PRESCRIPTION OF MUSCLE RELAXANTS The results of the logistic regression analysis of trends in muscle re- laxant prescription are reported in Table C. Overall, the demon- stration sites were less likely than the control sites to prescribe mus- cle relaxants for acute low back pain patients, as shown by the signif- icant coefficient and low odds ratio for the demo variable. However, the interaction terms for quarters 3 and 4 (demo × quarter) reveal 158 Evaluation of the Low Back Pain Practice Guideline Implementation Table C. The omitted group for the model is quarter 2, which is the baseline time period that immediately preceded the start of implementation activities by the demonstration MTFs. At the same time, prescription of muscle relaxants in the control sites remained relatively unchanged (i. Also of interest, active duty patients age 30–39 were more likely to be prescribed muscle relaxants than either their younger or older counterparts, and officers were less likely to be prescribed these medications. PRESCRIPTION OF NARCOTICS The results of the logistic regression analysis of trends in the per- centage of patients prescribed narcotics are reported in Table C. Overall, providers at the demonstration sites were less likely than Multivariate Analyses of Low Back Pain Metrics 159 Table C. The omitted group for the model is quarter 2, which is the baseline time period that immediately preceded the start of implementation activities by the demonstration MTFs. We found a significant downward trend for the control sites in the probability that low back pain patients would be prescribed muscle relaxants during the demonstration pe- riod (quarters 3 through 5). In addition, the trend for the demonstra- tion sites did not differ from the control site trend, as shown by the nonsignificant coefficients on the interaction terms (demo × quar- ter). Also of interest, narcotics were more likely to be prescribed to women than to men and to patients age 30 or older (compared with those younger than age 30). Further, officers were less likely to be pre- scribed narcotics than enlisted personnel (odds ratio = 0. The omitted group for the model is quarter 2, which is the baseline time period that immediately preceded the start of implementation activities by the demonstration MTFs. PRESCRIPTION OF HIGH-COST NSAIDs The results of the logistic regression analysis of trends in high-cost NSAID prescriptions are reported in Table C. We estimated this model using data for all the demonstration and control sites, includ- ing the two MTFs (one demonstration and one control) where use of high-cost NSAIDs increased over time. The time trend variables for the control sites during the demonstration period showed no trend in the per- centages of high-cost NSAIDs prescribed in the third or fourth quar- ters, followed by a small but significant increase in use in the fifth quarter. The omitted group for the model is quarter 2, which is the baseline time period that immediately preceded the start of implementation activities by the demonstration MTFs.
But bromocriptine has two serious side effects in some patients: it can cause both low blood pressure and psychosis discount arava 10 mg otc osteoporosis treatment. Other possible side effects are nausea 10 mg arava mastercard medicine 911, in- voluntary movements, confusion, dizziness, drowsiness, visual dis- turbances, shortness of breath, and constipation. Because of its possible effect on blood pressure, the first dose should be very small, and increases should be gradual. Never increase the dose of this drug on your own, and never take it more often than your doctor has prescribed. Patients who cannot tolerate bromocriptine or who no longer respond well to it may try a newer dopamine agonist, pergolide (Permax). Pergolide stimulates two types of dopamine receptors and is much stronger and longer acting than bromocriptine. It 82 living well with parkinson’s also is especially useful for patients who no longer respond well to Sinemet. Pergolide, too, has possible side effects: involuntary movements (twisting, jerking, and so on) and some cardiovascular problems, as well as the problems listed for bromocriptine. Another dopamine agonist, lisuride, is not available in the United States at the time of this writing. As most people with Parkinson’s know, when their symptoms are no longer controlled by the medications used in the earliest stages of the disease, the next medication is Sinemet. It contains levo- dopa, the most important drug used in treating Parkinson’s disease since 1970. The carbidopa stops levodopa from being converted into dopamine in other parts of the body (where dopamine is not only wasted but causes severe nausea and vomiting). Carbidopa is called an inhibitor because it inhibits the enzyme that converts levodopa into dopamine. Another inhibitor, benserazide, is combined with levodopa in a less widely used drug, Madopar. With the addition of inhibitors, much more of the lev- odopa gets to the brain than was the case with earlier levodopa drugs, and smaller amounts of it are sufficient. The top number represents milligrams of carbidopa, and the bottom number represents milligrams of levodopa. Then he increased the dose slowly, so that after eight years I was taking three or four 10/100s per day, depending on my needs. Remember that you can always discuss your medication with your doctor and seek a second opinion from another doctor if you are concerned that you are being given too many pills, too soon. If someone does not respond at all to Sinemet, doctors investigate the possi- bility that the patient has a look-alike disease, rather than Parkin- medications and therapies 83 son’s. Sinemet controls the primary symptoms of Parkinson’s very well, except that in some people it does not control tremors effectively. If you have a tremor that is interfering with your work or daily life, you need to discuss with your doctor the possibility of your taking an additional medication to control it. Remember that Sinemet is best taken approximately forty-five to sixty minutes before meals. Observe the amount of time your Sinemet takes to kick in, and schedule that amount of time between taking your pill and eating your meal. Sinemet will work better if it is not competing with your food, and your meal will be more enjoyable when your medication is already working. Scientists believe that protein (in meat, fish, milk products, eggs, cheese, legumes, wheat products, and nuts) competes with Sinemet and reduces its effect. Doctors now advise people with Parkinson’s who take Sinemet and who experience troubling fluc- tuations to avoid protein during the day (breakfast and lunch), when they need their strength, and to take the whole day’s protein requirement at the evening meal. The doctor may have to modify the dosage of Sinemet after the start of the low-protein diet. The diet should be designed by a dietitian who is familiar with the needs of the person with Parkinson’s and with how to fit nutritional require- ments into a very different eating pattern. Patients who are diabetic, seriously underweight, or recovering from surgery or lacerations should not attempt this diet. Parkinson’s patients continue to respond to Sinemet for a varying number of years, some people for many years and others for fewer.