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When decisions become especially difficult decadron 0.5 mg amex acne 8 months postpartum, the editor may refer the paper to an independent advisory committee who considers issues that are contentious or perceived as malpractice discount 1mg decadron with mastercard skin care 45 years old. It takes a long time for journals to establish their reputations and to increase their impact factors and it is the editor’s job to maintain or improve these. An editor is sometimes selected on the basis of the reviews that they have undertaken for a journal. Some journals require that potential editors have performed a certain number of reviews each year to establish commitment before they can become involved in the editorial process. Other journals select editors on the basis of their reputation or through an election process. If you want to 144 Review and editorial processes become an editor, it is probably best to ask a senior colleague for advice about how to get there. Acknowledgements King quotes have been reprinted with the permission of Scribner, a Division of Simon & Schuster, Inc. The Skinner Goldsmith, Bollingbrooke, Watson and Ochs quotes have been produced with permission from Collins Concise Dictionary of Quotations 3rd edn. Standard number: BS 5261C: 1976 2 Capital Community College, Hartford, CO, USA http://webster. An Adobe Acrobat version of these proofreading marks can be downloaded References 1 David A. The fate of papers presented at the 40th Society for Social Medicine Conference. Effect of open peer review on quality of reviews and on reviewers’ recommendations: a randomised trial. With practice, this discipline helps you learn how to craft your writing to suit your target audience. Irina Dunn1 The objectives of this chapter are to understand how to: • avoid duplicate publication • share data in large research teams • use the electronic media appropriately • assess the merit of journals and journal articles Duplicate publication A scientific paper is (1) the first publication of original research results, (2) in a form whereby peers of the author can repeat the experiments and test the conclusions, and (3) in a journal or other source document readily available with the scientific community. Infection and Immunity2 Redundant or duplicate publication occurs when results that are published in one paper substantially overlap with results published in another. Duplicate publication is unnecessary and is usually fraudulent since the authors have given a signed assurance that their work has not been published elsewhere. If you have any related information that is published in or has been submitted to another journal then you should include it when you submit your paper. In this way, it becomes the 147 Scientific Writing editor’s responsibility if the journal accepts a piece of work that proves to be duplicated. If more than 10% of a paper overlaps with another paper, the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors3 asks you to send in copies of the other paper so that the editorial panel can make an informed decision about the extent of any duplication of published data. No journal wants to publish papers that duplicate data that are already in press in another journal. If you want to include previous data analyses in your paper, the correct process is to cite them in the reference list. In some cases, secondary publication in another language is justifiable but only with the permission of the journal editor who may impose certain conditions. Most journals specifically ask authors to declare that their data are not published elsewhere and are not under consideration by another journal. These declarations help to prevent violation of copyright laws and to protect readers from being overwhelmed with information that is already in press. It is especially important not to present closely related analyses from the same study to two journals concurrently without disclosure to both journal editors. However, duplicate publication that comes to the notice of an editor will result in a prompt rejection and may result in disciplinary action from your institution or professional body. If the data are already in press, then a notice of duplicate publication may be published in the journal, perhaps without you as the author being given any prior notice. Such notices may also indicate withdrawal of the publication from the journal,5 which means that the article will be tracked by indexing services such as MEDLINE® as withdrawn. Most importantly, some editors have a strict policy of rejecting all future publications from authors who have submitted duplicate data to their journal.

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J Positional check x-rays are indicated only for non-sta- Pediatr Orthop 19: 344–50 bilized fractures at risk of displacement cheap decadron 0.5mg skin care juarez. Christodoulou AG discount decadron 1 mg mastercard acne 3 step system, Colton CL (1986) Scaphoid fractures in chil- can be confirmed clinically on the basis of the absence of dren. Davis RT, Gorzyca JT, Pugh K (2000) Supracondylar humerus frac- tenderness in the fracture area after 3–4 weeks. Clin Orthop 376: 49–55 check-ups are not indicated once mobility has been re- 17. Do TT, Strub WM, Foad SL, Mehlman CT, Crawford AH (2003) Re- stored as growth disturbances are rare. Ellefsen BK, Frierson MA, Raney EM, Ogden JA (1994) Humerus ▬ Growth disturbances and pseudarthroses in the hand varus: a complication of neonatal, infantile, and childhood injury and infection. J split off, particularly in the vicinity of the condyles, Pediatr Orthop 19: 559–69 can heal as a pseudarthrosis, but are usually of no 20. Fabry J, De Smet L, Fabry G (2000) Consequences of a fracture clinical consequence. J Pedi- ▬ Movement restrictions are not expected with short atr Orthop B 9: 212–4 21. Farsetti P, Potenza V, Caterini R, Ippolito E (2001) Long-term re- immobilization periods. Occupational therapy is indi- sults of treatment of the medial humeral epicondyle in children. Fowles JV, Slimane N, Kassab MT (1990) Elbow dislocation with ▬ Posttraumatic deformities can be safely avoided by the avulsion of the medial humeral epicondyle. J Bone Joint Surg (Br) correct clinical recording of the rotational situation 72: 102–4 and observance of the limits of spontaneous correc- 23. Gartland JJ (1959) Management of supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children. Gibbons CL, Woods DA, Pailthorpe C, Carr AJ, Worlock P (1994) The management of isolated distal radius fractures in children. Gilchrist AD, McKee (2002) Valgus instability of the elbow due to ulnar nerve palsy caused by cubitus varus deformity. J Hand Surg medial epicondyle non-union: treatment by fragment excision (Am) 20: 5–9 and ligament repair- a report of 5 cases. Archibeck MJ, Scott SM, Peters CL (1997) Brachialis muscle en- 11: 493–7 trapment in displaced supracondylar humerus fractures: a tech- 26. Goldfarb CA, Bassett GS, Sullivan S, Gordon JE (2001) Retrosternal nique of closed reduction and report of initial results. J Pediatr displacement after physeal fracture of the medial clavicle in chil- Orthop 17: 298–302 dren treatment by open reduction and internal fixation. Clin Orthop 376: 32–8 closed intramedullary pinning (Metaizeau Technique). Bortel DT, Pritchett JW (1993) Straight-line graphs for the predic- Orthop 17: 325–31 tion of growth of the upper extremity. Graves SC, Canale S (1993) Fractures of the olecranon in children: 885–92 long-term follow-up. Gurkan I, Bayrakci K, Tasbas B, Daglar B, Gunel U, Ucaner A (2002) Rokkanen P (1986) Radial palsy in shaft fracture of the humerus. Posterior instability of the shoulder after supracondylar fractures Acta Orthop Scand 57: 316–9 recovered with cubitus varus deformity. Bould M, Bannister GC (1999) Refractures of the radius and ulna 198–202 in children. Calder JD, Solan M, Gidwani S, Allen S, Ricketts DM (2002) Man- erten Frakturen des Condylus radialis humeri im Wachstumsalter. Cannata G, De Maio F, Mancini F, Ippolito E (2003) Physeal frac- after fractures of the lateral condyle in children. J Pediatr Orthop tures of the distal radius and ulna: long-term prognosis. Carsi B, Abril JC, Epeldegui T (2003) Longitudinal growth after omy and external fixation for chronically displaced radial heads.

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Hydronephrosis Hydronephrosis is the dilation of the renal pelvi-caliceal collecting system pro- ximal to an obstructing lesion (Fig cheap 1 mg decadron with mastercard skin care companies. A pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction is the common- est cause of hydronephrosis and may result from intrinsic stenosis buy cheap decadron 0.5mg line acne vitamin deficiency, functional obstruction or compression of the pelvi-ureteric junction by an aberrant artery or fibrous band. Unilateral or bilateral hydronephrosis can be seen in the presence of a urete- rocele at the vesicoureteric junction and will also be associated with dilatation of the ureter(s). Simple renal dilatation can occur without obstruction in condi- tions such as vesicoureteric reflux and in such cases may be a transient phenomenon. Posterior urethral valves Posterior urethral valves are the commonest cause of lower urinary tract obstruc- tion in boys and result from mucosal folds that obstruct the urethra and cause bladder outlet obstruction. The diagnosis is often made prenatally with ultra- sound showing a dilated fetal urinary system and reduced amniotic fluid volume. Posterior urethral valves may be detected in the postnatal period fol- lowing clinical examination of a healthy neonate with a distended bladder and poor urinary stream. Occasionally the condition presents with overflow inconti- nence or urinary tract infection in later childhood. Micturating cystourethrogra- phy in these cases will demonstrate bilateral obstructive hydronephrosis which may also be associated with vesicoureteric reflux7. Haematuria Blood in the urine of a child is a non-specific indicator of genitourinary disease and, in the absence of recent surgery or trauma, is usually the result of bacterial infection. Rarely, haematuria may occur as a result of a urinary tract calculus or neoplasm and in these circumstances abdominal ultrasound or contrast urogra- phy is indicated. Renal agenesis Absence of one or both kidneys is usually diagnosed during routine antenatal ultrasound screening. Bilateral renal agenesis is incompatible with life and an affected child will succumb early in the neonatal period. Unilateral renal agen- esis will cause compensatory hypertrophy of the contra-lateral kidney and the child may have normal, or only minimally reduced, overall renal function14. There is a spectrum of congenital variations in renal anatomy that result from the abnormal migration of the kidneys from the pelvis to the upper abdomen during embryonic life. Common variants include the abnormal location of one or both kidneys (ectopic kidney) and crossed renal ectopia. Occasionally, bilat- eral kidneys are joined at the upper or lower poles creating a ‘horseshoe’ kidney (Fig. All of these anomalies may be demon- strated using ultrasound or contrast urography. Chronic renal failure Chronic renal failure occurs when causative abnormalities are not detected early enough to allow intervention. The causative mechanisms in children are closely related to the age of the child at the time renal failure manifests. Below the age of 5 years, congenital obstructive malformations and hereditary renal dysplasias are the most common cause whereas in children over the age of 5 years, acquired disease resulting in progressive renal scarring is more likely6. Undescended testes (cryptorchidism) Undescended testes are present in 0. Spontaneous testicular descent may occur during the first year of life but above this age, poor testicular development and atrophy will occur. Accurate diagnosis of the condition is important as malignant change in undescended testes has been reported in 20–44% of cases, usually in the third and fourth decades of life6. Ultrasound will often demonstrate an abdominal The abdomen 75 testis in the inguinal canal although in a significant number of cases unde- scended testes may be associated with other genitourinary tract anomalies and evaluation of the whole genitourinary system is prudent. Abdominal mass In children under 4 years of age, an abdominal mass is likely to involve the renal system and is most commonly due to hydronephrosis4,15, although abdominal malignancies should be actively excluded. Ultrasound is the imaging modality of choice and will readily allow identification of the affected organs and assess- ment of any mass effect or invasion of adjacent structures9,10,15. The most common paediatric abdominal malignancies are neuroblastoma (adrenal), Wilms’ tumour (kidney), hepatoblastoma and hepatocellular carcinoma (liver), rhabdomyosar- coma (skeletal muscle) and lymphoma.

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Detection and decision factors in pain perception in young and elderly men buy generic decadron 1mg on-line delex acne. Suppression of first pain and slow temporal summation of second pain in relation to age decadron 0.5 mg discount acne under arms. The establishment of a geriatric pain clinic: A preliminary report on the first 100 patients. Neurogenic flare responses following topical application of capsaicin in humans. Leg pain in the rural Iowa 65+ popula- tion: Prevalence, related factors, and association with functional status. Depression and the experience of chronic back pain: A study of related variables and age differences. In- fant cardiac activity: Developmental changes and relations with attachment. Developmental changes in pain expression in premature full-term, 2-month-old and 4-month-old infants. Behavioral distress in children with cancer under- going medical procedures: Developmental considerations. Development of an observational method for assessing pain be- haviour in chronic low back pain patients. A comparison of coping strategies in chronic pain patients in different age groups. Pain coping strategies in patients who have had knee replacement surgery. Health status of older people project: Data from a sur- vey of the health and lifestyles of older Australians. Report to the Victorian Health Promotion Foundation, Melbourne, Australia. Variations in population health status: Re- sults from a United Kingdom national questionnaire survey. Assessment and treatment of discomfort in people with late-stage dementia. Measurement of pain: Patient preference does not confound pain measurement. Assessment of pain in cognitively impaired older adults: A comparison of pain assess- ment tools and their use by non-professional caregivers. Prevalence and functional correlates of low in the elderly: The Iowa 65+ rural health study. Pain measurement: Understanding existing tools and their application in the emergency department. Conservation of energy, un- certainty reduction, and swift utilization of medical care among the elderly. Effect of age on vascular content of calcitonin gene-related peptide and mesenteric vasodilator activity in the rat. The role of personality, recent life stress and arthritic severity in predicting pain. Gender and age differences in attitudes to dental pain and dental control. The expression of pain in infants and toddlers: Developmental changes in facial action. An epidemio- logic study of headache among adolescents and young adults. Stiff upper lip: Coping strategies of World War II veter- ans with phantom limb pain. Chronic musculoskeletal pain and depression in the National Health and Nutrition Examination. Effects of a skin refrigerant/anesthetic and age on the pain responses of in- fants receiving immunizations. Influence of age on measurement of health status in patients un- dergoing elective surgery. Behavioral interven- tion to reduce child and parent distress during venipuncture. The painful truth: Interpretation of facial expression of pain in older adults.

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