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Implanted OECs and pattern generator buy discount furosemide 40 mg line arteria bologna, and modulation of sub- Schwann cells may also remyelinate CNS axons purchase furosemide 100 mg overnight delivery blood pressure questions and answers. Inosine and AIT- 082 were mentioned earlier and nicotine and SUMMARY amphetamine may expand dendrites in frontal These preliminary advances increase the regions (see Experimental Case Studies 2–6). For example, 4-aminopyridine needed cell line or trophic or neurotransmit- may partially restore the conduction of action po- ter substance. The drug creasingly feasible genetic engineering ap- blocks potassium channels, prolongs action po- proach to push them in a desired direction. What has to be determined includes: and allow them to integrate into the environs 1. In addition, any neuronal lesion to be treated cell graft will need to experience a training par- 2. The ability of researchers to create, in in inducing activity-dependent plasticity vivo, a complex neural circuit with cells that An augmentation strategy with a medication receive and send synaptic signals in a way that may find an inverted U-shaped curve for dos- recapitulates normal regulation of excitation, ing in which minimally higher doses reverse Biologic Adaptations and Neural Repair 113 EXPERIMENTAL CASE STUDIES 2–6: Pharmacologic Interventions for Plasticity After being given d-amphetamine, both rats and cats that underwent a unilateral or bilateral ablation of the sensorimotor or frontal cortex have exhibited an accelerated rate of recovery, but not necessar- ily a greater degree of recovery of the ability to walk across a beam. This improvement endured well past the single or intermittent dosing schedule of the drug. A dopamine blocker, haloperi- dol, prevented this recovery in the animal studies. Both the alpha-1 noradrenergic antagonist prazosin and the alpha-2 noradrenergic agonist clonidine reinstated deficits in recovered rats. In young rats, the drug can acti- vate the lumbar neural circuitry for stepping. In this cortical injury model then, norepinephrine played a role in both the promotion and maintenance of recovery, although not always in a predictable fash- ion. The investigators suspected that the noradrenergic drug alleviated a functional depression, or di- aschisis, in remote, transsynaptically connected regions of the brain. Other neurotransmitters, including acetylcholine, dopamine, GABA and serotonin have enhanced mo- tor recovery. Nicotine upregulates nicotinic receptors and improved performance in some human stud- ies and improved performance in rats after a basal forebrain lesion of the cholinergic system. Nicotine improved performance on the Morris water maze when the drug was given before or after a medial frontal lesion, although gains were not up to the level of sham-operated rats. In the rat sensorimotor cortex lesion model described in Experimen- tal Case Study 2–3, treatment with a benzodiazepine led to ipsilateral loss of neurons in the striatum and substantia nigra and interfered with behavioral recovery of the affected limb. Some drugs could enhance one function, but reinstate or cause another type of motor or cognitive dys- function. Pharmacologic replacement may from an upper or lower motor neuron lesion, miss the form of the chemical messenger that as well as from a catabolic state and disuse. The acts on a specific receptor, such as the D1 ver- reduction in muscle mass is proportional to the sus D2 dopamine receptor. What vates only a small proportion of the motor units is clear is that clinicians should select medica- within a given motor pool. This additional strengthen muscle and to limit atrophy pose a recruitment may require the activation of mo- challenge to therapists and patients when neu- tor units with higher thresholds than normal. Loss of muscle 114 Neuroscientific Foundations for Rehabilitation mass, then, may prevent a hemiparetic or para- leads to fiber enlargement and a net transfor- paretic subject from walking. The molecular diversity of sistance training also remodels the neuromus- the fiber population is reflected in the many phe- cular junction by increasing axon terminal notypes that have been characterized. Muscle mass in- creases from 7% to 10%, along with increments Exercise in strength that generally exceed the gains in muscle mass. Some of the incremental gains Normal exercise utilizes the oxidation of car- come from greater skill in carrying out the re- bohydrates and fats to generate ATP for mus- sistance exercise. Reflex actions adjust ventila- with a focus on either concentric or eccentric tion and circulatory requirements to deliver contractions often is said to produce greater oxygen and remove carbon dioxide. The maxi- gains in strength and mass compared to iso- mum oxygen consumption serves as a good metric programs, but the data are difficult to measure of exercise capacity and fitness. Low interpret because of confounding variables cardiovascular fitness reduces the maximal ca- across studies. Programs for exercise are not pacity to deliver fuels to working muscle and standardized, so studies differ in factors such reduces the mass of mitochondria and the en- as (1) the number of contractions performed zymatic machinery needed for high rates of ox- per session; (2) the relative loads imposed on idative phosphorylation. Patients with an acute the muscle groups; (3) the number of training debilitating neurologic illness become decon- sessions performed each week; (4) the duration ditioned rather quickly and their tolerance for of the training program; and (5) the pretrain- exercise drops off.
If other drugs are being given through the same IV line discount furosemide 40 mg amex arrhythmia while sleeping, flush the line with one of the above solutions before and after linezolid administration cheap furosemide 100mg blood pressure chart for tracking. With quinupristin/dalfopristin: (1) Give IV, mixed in a minimum of 250 mL of 5% Dilution in at least 250 mL of IV solution decreases venous irri- dextrose solution and infused over 60 min. A central venous catheter may also be used for drug ad- ministration to decrease irritation. With vancomycin, dilute 500-mg doses in 100 mL and 1-g To decrease hypotension and ﬂushing (ie, red man syndrome) doses in 200 mL of 0. Decreased signs and symptoms of the speciﬁc infection for which the drug is being given 3. With macrolides: (1) Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea These are the most frequent adverse reactions, reportedly less common with azithromycin and clarithromycin than with ery- thromycin. Phlebitis can be mini- mized by diluting the drug well, infusing it slowly, and not using the same vein more than 48–72 h, if possible. With chloramphenicol: (1) Bone marrow depression (anemia, leukopenia, throm- Blood dyscrasias are the most serious adverse reaction to chlo- bocytopenia) ramphenicol. With clindamycin: (1) Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea These are the most frequent adverse effects and may be severe enough to require stopping the drug. The organism neutrophils and shreds of mucous membrane produces a toxin that kills mucosal cells and produces superﬁcial ulcerations that are visible with sigmoidoscopy. Discontinuing the drug and giving oral metronidazole are curative measures. With linezolid: (1) Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea These are common effects. With metronidazole: Convulsions and peripheral neuropathy may be serious effects; GI effects are most common. With quinupristin/dalfopristin: (1) IV infusion site reactions (pain, edema, inﬂammation) The most common adverse effects during clinical trials. Moder- ate to severe venous irritation can occur with administration through peripheral veins. With vancomycin: (1) Nephrotoxicity—oliguria, increased blood urea nitrogen Uncommon. Most likely to occur with large doses, concomitant ad- and serum creatinine ministration of an aminoglycoside antibiotic, or pre-existing renal impairment. Can be prevented by adequate dilution and infusing over 1–2 h or premedicating with diphenhydramine (an antihistamine). Drugs that increase effects of erythromycin: (1) Chloramphenicol The combination is effective against some strains of resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Drug that increases effects of clarithromycin: (1) Fluconazole Probably inhibits metabolism of clarithromycin c. Drugs that increase effects of dirithyromycin: (1) Antacids, histamine-2 (H2) receptor antagonists These agents raise gastric pH and slightly increase absorption of dirithromycin. Drugs that decrease effects of azithromycin: (1) Antacids Antacids decrease peak serum levels (continued) 558 SECTION 6 DRUGS USED TO TREAT INFECTIONS NURSING ACTIONS RATIONALE/EXPLANATION e. Drugs that decrease effects of chloramphenicol: (1) Enzyme inducers (eg, rifampin) Reduce serum levels, probably by accelerating liver metabolism of chloramphenicol f. Drugs that decrease effects of clindamycin: (1) Erythromycin Delays absorption (2) Kaolin-pectin g. Drug that increases effects of metronidazole: (1) Cimetidine Inhibits hepatic metabolism of metronidazole h. Drugs that decrease effects of metronidazole: (1) Enzyme inducers (phenobarbital, phenytoin, prednisone, These drugs induce hepatic enzymes and decrease effects of rifampin) metronidazole by accelerating its rate of hepatic metabolism. How would you recognize pseudomembranous colitis in Answer: This error occurred because the drug infused too rapidly. What would you do if you thought a client might Although the IV rate was calculated correctly, the IV could have have it? Why is metronidazole preferred over vancomycin for ini- use an IV controller pump to regulate the infusion rate. Which antibacterial drug is considered the drug of choice but is caused by histamine release and vasodilation when infusion for MRSA and SSNA? What is red man syndrome, and how can it be prevented premedication with an antihistamine.
Rebound nasal swelling can occur • Cough is a forceful expulsion of air from the lungs buy furosemide 40 mg on-line arrhythmia basics. It is with excessive or extended use of nasal sprays (eg cheap furosemide 40 mg otc arrhythmia games, >7 days, normally a protective reﬂex for removing foreign bodies, perhaps sooner). The cough reﬂex involves central tis associated with respiratory infections or allergies. Centrally, the cough center also may be used to reduce local blood ﬂow before nasal in the medulla oblongata receives stimuli and initiates the surgery and to aid visualization of the nasal mucosa during reﬂex response (deep inspiration, closed glottis, buildup diagnostic examinations. Pe- These drugs are contraindicated in clients with severe hy- ripherally, cough receptors in the pharynx, larynx, tra- pertension or coronary artery disease because of their cardiac chea, or lungs may be stimulated by air, dryness of stimulating and vasoconstricting effects. A cough is traindicated for clients with narrow-angle glaucoma and productive when secretions are expectorated; it is non- those taking tricyclic or monoamine oxidase inhibitor anti- productive when it is dry and no sputum is expectorated. They must be used with caution in the presence Cough is a prominent symptom of respiratory tract of cardiac dysrhythmias, hyperthyroidism, diabetes mellitus, infections (eg, the common cold, inﬂuenza, bronchitis, glaucoma, and prostatic hypertrophy. Fell, an elderly man with a history of hypertension and dia- Many cold remedies are over-the-counter (OTC) formula- betes, has a cold. Commonly used ingredients include chlorpheniramine scribes pseudoephedrine (Sudafed) to relieve nasal congestion. Discuss the error and gestant), acetaminophen (analgesic and antipyretic), dextro- the impact it will have on Mr. Although antihistamines are popular OTC drugs because they dry nasal secretions, they are not recommended because they Antitussives can also dry lower respiratory secretions and worsen secre- tion retention and cough. Antitussive agents suppress cough by depressing the cough Many products come in several formulations, with differ- center in the medulla oblongata or the cough receptors in the ent ingredients, and are advertised for different purposes throat, trachea, or lungs. Centrally acting antitussives include (eg, allergy, sinus disorders, multisymptom cold and ﬂu reme- narcotics (eg, codeine, hydrocodone) and non-narcotics dies). For example, allergy remedies contain an antihistamine; (eg, dextromethorphan). Locally acting agents (eg, throat nondrowsy or daytime formulas contain a nasal decon- lozenges, cough drops) may suppress cough by increasing the gestant, but do not contain an antihistamine; PM or night ﬂow of saliva and by containing demulcents or local anes- formulas contain a sedating antihistamine to promote sleep; thetics to decrease irritation of pharyngeal mucosa. Flavored pain, fever, and multisymptom formulas usually contain acet- syrups are often used as vehicles for other drugs. It is not desirable to suppress a productive cough because products list ingredients by generic name, without identifying the secretions need to be removed. As a result of these bewildering products, tinue to be used and some people report beneﬁcial effects, consumers, including nurses and other health care providers, some research studies indicate that cough medicines are no may not know what medications they are taking or whether more effective than placebos in children or adults. INDIVIDUAL DRUGS Expectorants Individual decongestants, antitussives, expectorants, and mu- Expectorants are agents given orally to liquefy respiratory se- colytics are listed in Drugs at a Glance: Nasal Decongestants, cretions and allow for their easier removal. Guaifenesin is the Antitussives, and Expectorants; selected combination prod- most commonly used expectorant. Several supplements are commonly used to prevent or treat Mucolytics symptoms of the common cold. Mucolytics are administered by inhalation to liquefy mucus in Echinacea preparations differ in chemical composition the respiratory tract. Solutions of mucolytic drugs may be neb- depending on which of the nine species or parts of the plant ulized into a face mask or mouthpiece or instilled directly into (eg, leaves, roots, whole plants) are used, as well as the sea- the respiratory tract through a tracheostomy. Sodium chloride solution and acetylcysteine (Mucomyst) are the only agents recommended for use as mucolytics. Acetylcysteine is effec- tive within 1 minute after inhalation, and maximal effects Nursing Notes: Apply Your Knowledge occur within 5 to 10 minutes. Oral acetylcysteine is widely used in the treatment of acetaminophen overdosage (see Chap. Joan, a college student, comes to the health clinic with cold symptoms (productive cough, low-grade fever, continuous nasal Cold Remedies discharge, and general malaise and discomfort). She states she went to the drugstore to buy some cold medicine, but there were so many different preparations that she was confused. Discuss Many combination products are available for treating symp- your recommendations for Joan, with their underlying rationale. Many of the products contain an CHAPTER 49 NASAL DECONGESTANTS, ANTITUSSIVES, AND COLD REMEDIES 731 Drugs at a Glance: Nasal Decongestants, Antitussives, and Expectorants Routes and Dosage Ranges Generic/Trade Name Adults Children Nasal Decongestants Ephedrine sulfate 0. Maximum, 6 doses/24 h 6–11 y: 2–3 sprays in each nostril no more often than q4h.
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