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Bulstrode SJ buy cheap vasotec 10 mg blood pressure patch, Barefoot J effective vasotec 10mg blood pressure zantac, Harrison RA, Clarke AK (1987) The role of passive stretching in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis. Calin A, Nakache J-P, Gueguen A, Zeidler H, Mielants H, Dougados M (1999) Deﬁning disease activity in ankylosing spondylitis: is a combination of variables (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index) an appropriate instrument? Callahan LF, Pincus T (1995) Mortality in the rheumatic diseases. Court-Brown WM, Doll R (1965) Mortality from cancer and other causes after radiotherapy for ankylosing spondylitis. Dougados M, Revel M, Khan MA (1998) Spondyl- arthropathy treatment: Progress in medical treat- ment, physical therapy and rehabilitation. Ebringer A, Wilson C (1996) The use of a low starch diet in the treatment of patients suffering from ankylos- ing spondylitis. Feldtkeller E, Bruckel J, Khan MA (2000) Contributions of the ankylosing spondylitis patient advocacy groups to spondyloarthritis research. Feldtkeller E, Khan MA, van der Linden S, van der Heijde D, Braun J (submitted) Age at disease onset and diagnosis delay in HLA-B27 negative vs. Annals of Rheumatic Disease (submitted) Finkelstein JA, Chapman JR, Mirza S (1999) Occult ver- tebral fractures in ankylosing spondylitis. François RJ, Braun J, Khan MA (2001) Entheses and enthesitis: a histopathological review and relevance to spondyloarthritides. Franke A and colleagues (2000) Long-term efﬁcacy of radon spa therapy in rheumatoid arthritis—a ran- domized, sham-controlled study and follow-up. Granfors K, Marker-Herman E, De Keyser P, Khan MA, Veys EM, Yu DT (2002) The cutting edge of spondyloarthropathy research in the millennium. Gratacos J, Collado A, Pons F and colleagues (1999) Signiﬁcant loss of bone mass in patients with early, active ankylosing spondylitis: a followup study. Heikkila S, Viitanen JV, Kautiainen H, Kauppi M (2000) Sensitivity to change of mobility tests; effect of short term intensive physiotherapy and exercise on spinal, hip, and shoulder measurements in spondylo- arthropathy. Herman M, Veys EM, Cuvelier C, De Vos M, Botelberghe L (1985) HLA-B27 related arthritis and bowel inﬂammation. Part 2: Ileocolonoscopy and bowel histology in patients with HLA-B27 related arthritis. Hidding A, van der Linden S, Gielen X and colleagues (1994) Continuation of group physical therapy is necessary in ankylosing spondylitis: results of a ran- domized controlled trial. Holman H, Loric K (1987) Patient education in the rheumatic diseases: pros and cons. Rheumatic Disease Clinics of North America 18: 1–276. Khan MA (1995) HLA-B27 and its subtypes in world populations. Khan MA, Khan MK (1982) Diagnostic value of HLA-B27 testing in ankylosing spondylitis and Reiter s syndrome. Khan MA, van der Linden SM (1990) A wider spectrum of spondyloarthropathies. Khan MA, Khan MK, Kushner I (1981) Survival among patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a life-table analysis. Kidd BL, Cawley MI (1988) Delay in diagnosis of spon- darthritis. Koh TC (1982) Tai Chi and ankylosing spondylitis – A personal experience. American Journal of Chinese Medicine 10: 59–61 Kraag G, Stokes B, Groh J, Helewa A, Goldsmith C (1990) The effects of comprehensive home physio- therapy and supervision on patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a randomized controlled trial. Laiho K, Tiitinen S, Kaarela K, Helin H, Isomaki H (1999) Secondary amyloidosis has decreased in patients with inﬂammatory joint disease in Finland. Lau CS, Burgos-Vargas R, Louthreno W, Mok MY, Wordsworth P, Zeng QY (1998) Features of spondy- loarthritis around the world. Rheumatic Disease Clinics of North America 24: 753–770. Lorig KR, Mazonson PD, Holman HR (1993) Evidence suggesting that health education for self-manage- ment in patients with chronic arthritis has sustained health beneﬁts while reducing healthcare costs.
Courtesy Churchill- canal is smaller than usual for this vertebral level buy discount vasotec 10 mg on line blood pressure medication pros and cons. Courtesy Livingstone (Saunders) Press Churchill-Livingstone (Saunders) Press ©2002 CRC Press LLC Figure 2 buy vasotec 10mg visa blood pressure jokes. None of the Courtesy Churchill-Livingstone (Saunders) Press discs were painful during injection. There is normal contrast dispersal in the nuclear compartment at each level Figure 2. The most important liga- lower lumbar region, it is a single muscle, but it ment from a clinical perspective is the posterior divides into three distinct columns of muscles, sepa- longitudinal ligament, which connects to the verte- rated by fibrous tissue. Below the erector spinae bral bodies and posterior aspect of the vertebral disc muscles is an intermediate muscle group, made up of and forms the anterior wall of the spinal canal. The three layers that collectively form the multifidus ligamentum flavum, which has a higher elastin muscle. These muscles originate from the sacrum content, attaches between the lamina of the vertebra and the mamillary processes that expand backwards and extends into the anterior capsule of the from the lumbar pedicles. They extend cranially and zygapophyseal joints; it attaches to the pedicles medially to insert into the lamina and adjacent above and below, forming the posterior wall of the spinous processes, one, two or three levels above vertebral canal and part of the roof of the lateral their origin. The deep muscular layer consists of small foramina through which the nerve roots pass. There muscles arranged from one level to another between are also dense fibrous ligaments connecting the the spinous processes, transverse processes and spinous processes and the transverse processes, as mamillary processes and the lamina. In the lumbar well as a number of ligaments attaching the lower spine, there are also large anterior and lateral muscles lumbar vertebrae to the sacrum and pelvis. The individual muscle cells have small peripherally located nuclei and are filled with the contractile proteins, actin and myosin. The actin and myosin THE NERVE ROOTS AND SPINAL CORD form cross-striations, which are easily visualized on light microscopy of longitudinal sections of muscle. The spinal canal contains and protects the spinal The sarcomeres formed by the actin and myosin cord and the spinal nerves. The spinal cord projects fibrils are separated by Z-lines, to which the actin is distally through the spinal canal from the brain, to attached, and are visible on electron microscopy. The lower level of the spinal cord is arranged along the periphery of the cells. The most superficial, or outer layer, is made respective exit points. Note the small peripheral nuclei situated at Light microscopy. Note the cross-striations and thin dark nuclei the periphery of the muscle cells Courtesy Churchill- arranged along the periphery of the muscle cells. Courtesy Livingstone (Saunders) Press Churchill-Livingstone (Saunders) Press ©2002 CRC Press LLC Figure 2. Courtesy Churchill-Livingstone (Saunders) Press by the three layers of the meninges. The outer layer, or dura mater, is separated by a potential subdural space to the arachnoid meninges. The subarachnoid space, which separates it from the pia mater, is filled with cerebrospinal fluid, which circu- lates up and down the spinal canal. The dura mater and pia mater continue distally, ensheathing the spinal nerves to the exit points. The spinal nerves exit the spinal cord by two nerve roots. The ventral nerve root carries motor fibers which originate in the anterior horn of the spinal cord. These neurons receive direct input from motor centers in the brain and, in turn, innervate the body musculature. The sensory or dorsal nerve root carries impulses from sensory receptors in the skin, muscles and other Electron microscopy of muscle, longitudinal section, showing tissues of the body to the spinal cord and from there dark vertical Z-lines separated by lighter actin and darker to the brain.
Results of routine laboratory tests at that time were as follows: white blood cell count buy generic vasotec 10 mg line blood pressure 210 over 110, 7 cheap vasotec 5 mg online hypertension quizlet,500 cells/µl; hematocrit, 26%; mean cell volume, 96 fl; and platelet count, 485,000/µl. Follow-up lab- oratory studies revealed no vitamin B12 or folate deficiencies. Repeat laboratory values today reveal a persistent macrocytic anemia and an elevated platelet count. The presence of monolobulated and bilobulated micromegakaryocytes characterizes which of the fol- lowing chromosomal abnormalities? A deletion of the long arm of chromosome 9 Key Concept/Objective: To know the clinical presentation of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) Considerable data suggest that MDS results from combined defects of both stroma and hematopoietic stem cells. Several clinical syndromes that may have a more predictable natural history can now be defined. For example, a deletion of the long arm of chromo- some 5 can be detected in some older patients, especially women, with a macrocytic, refractory anemia (RA). The bone mar- row picture in the RA with 5q– syndrome is characterized by the presence of monolobu- lated and bilobulated micromegakaryocytes. Two thirds of these patients have RA or RA with ringed sideroblasts (RARS), and the remainder have RAEB (RA with excess of blasts). In those patients who have a del(5q) as their sole cytogenetic abnormality, MDS tends to follow a more benign course, although progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) may occur. A 62-year-old woman well known to you comes to see you in clinic. Since the last time you saw her, she was admitted to the hospital and diagnosed with acute leukemia. She has been followed by a local hema- tologist and has undergone remission-induction chemotherapy. She is scheduled to begin postinduction consolidation therapy. She explains that she and the specialist are working toward a “complete remis- sion” (CR) and wants to know if that means she will be cured. Which of the following definitions of CR is most accurate? Full recovery of normal peripheral blood counts; blast cells are unde- tectable in the bone marrow B. Full recovery of normal peripheral blood counts; bone marrow cellu- larity with less than 5% residual blast cells C. Full recovery of normal peripheral blood counts; bone marrow cellu- larity with less than 10% residual blast cells D. Full recovery of normal peripheral blood counts; bone marrow cellu- larity with less than 10% residual blast cells for a minimum of 1 year Key Concept/Objective: To understand the concept of CR in leukemia patients The goal of remission-induction chemotherapy is the rapid restoration of normal bone marrow function. The term complete remission is reserved for patients who have full recovery of normal peripheral blood counts and bone marrow cellularity with less than 5% residual blast cells. Induction therapy aims to reduce the total-body leukemia cell pop- ulation from approximately 1012 cells to below the cytologically detectable level of about 109 cells. The leukemia cells in some patients have high levels of primary drug resistance and will be refractory to courses of remission-induction chemotherapy. It is assumed, how- ever, that even in CR a substantial burden of leukemia cells persists undetected, leading to relapse within a few weeks or months if no further therapy is administered. Postinduction or remission consolidation therapy, usually comprising several additional courses of 40 BOARD REVIEW chemotherapy, is designed to eradicate residual leukemia, allowing the possibility of cure. A 52-year-old man presents to you in clinic as a new patient. It has been several years since he has seen a physician. He comes to you today because he has not been feeling well and he thinks something is wrong. He reports that for the past several weeks, he has been experiencing malaise, subjective weight loss, and fevers. Physical examination is notable for lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. Laboratory data reveal a moderately decreased hemoglobin level, thrombocytopenia, and a moderate leukocytosis.