By O. Leif. Carlos Albizu University.
A 67-year-old man buy 0.25mg lanoxin otc blood pressure chart excel, 3 months after a myocardial infarction (MI) buy generic lanoxin 0.25mg on line hypertension 33 weeks pregnant, reports problems with severe insomnia. He cannot fall asleep easily and wakes up at about 4:30 A. He has had increased fatigue since his MI, is more forgetful, and has problems with concentration. His other medical problems include reflux esophagitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and a history of stroke with a related seizure disorder. Medications include aspirin, simvastatin, atenolol, and enalapril. Bupropion Key Concept/Objective: To know how to select antidepressant medications for patients with multiple comorbid medical illnesses This patient has a major depression shortly after an MI. This is not uncommon; up to 20% to 30% of patients may develop depression after MI. This patient also has BPH and a history of a seizure disorder. Tricyclic antidepressants should be avoided because of the risk of cardiac arrhythmia, as well as the increased risk of urinary retention in this patient because of his BPH. Bupropion should be avoided because of his known seizure disorder. An SSRI (paroxetine in this case) is a safe choice, given his comorbid medical illnesses. A 38-year-old man with a diagnosis of depression presents for follow-up. He has had a good response to treatment with sertraline but would like to stop treatment because of sexual side effects (delayed ejacu- lation). Which of the following would you recommend for this patient? Stop sertraline, begin amitriptyline Key Concept/Objective: To know the sexual side-effect profiles of antidepressant medications This patient is concerned about the sexual side effects he is experiencing from sertra- line. He has been treated for only 6 weeks, which is too short a course for treatment of a major depression. Patients who discontinue treatment within the first 16 weeks of therapy are at much higher risk for relapse. Sexual side effects are a class effect of SSRIs and unlikely to be much reduced with fluoxetine or paroxetine. The antidepressant medications with the least likelihood of sexual side effects are bupropion, nefazodone, and mirtazapine. A 49-year-old woman presents for follow-up of depression. She has been treated with fluoxetine for the past 12 weeks. She started on 20 mg a day and had only a minimal response. She reports that her fatigue has improved, and she is no longer suicidal. She still has marked anhedonia and problems with concentration. She reports that she has not been missing doses of her medication. Which of the following would you recommend for this patient? Add buspirone to current regimen Key Concept/Objective: To be able to recognize partial response to antidepressant therapy and to understand how to augment the response This patient has had a partial response to treatment of her depression with fluoxetine. She has had an appropriate increase in dose from 20 mg to 40 mg and an appropriate interval (6 weeks) for observation of response at the higher drug dose. This patient is a good candidate for augmenting the response by the addition of another drug. The most common drugs used for this purpose are lithium and bupropion. In giving his social history, the patient reports drink- ing six beers nightly to relieve stress. He admits to having been arrested once for driving while under the influence of alcohol, but he denies that there is any evidence of alcohol withdrawal or tolerance.
On electron microscopy trusted 0.25mg lanoxin blood pressure kiosk for sale, focal myofibrillar degeneration and distortion of the Z-disks are common quality 0.25mg lanoxin blood pressure medication for acne, but are not specific for LGMD. Genetic testing: This may define the specific type of LGMD, although genetic testing is problem- atic for several reasons. These include the heterogeneity of the disorder, many potential causes of the syndrome have not been fully elucidated, and even when the gene abnormality is known genetic testing may currently not be available. Future therapies will have Therapy to target the specific molecular defect. It can be difficult to convince family members that the risk of having a severely affected child may be equally as high in those subjects with mild or severe disease. Prognosis LGMD is a progressive disorder, although the rate of progression depends on the type. Autosomal recessive LGMD usually progresses rapidly,with inability to walk in late childhood and death in early adulthood. In contrast, autosomal dominant LGMD even of childhood onset is usually only very slowly progres- sive. Respiratory involvement may occur later in the disease depending on the specific type of LGMD. Myocar- dial changes may also occur in LGMD, depending on the type, although they are usually less severe than in the dystrophinopathies. Affected patients may develop a cardiac arrhythmia or sometimes congestive cardiac failure. References Galbiati F, Razani B, Lisanti MP (2001) Caveolae and caveolin-3 in muscular dystrophy. Trends Mol Med 7: 435–441 Hack AA, Groh ME, McNally EM (2000) Sarcoglycans in muscular dystrophy. Microsc Res Tech 48: 167–180 Huang Y, Wang KK (2001) The calpain family and human disease. Trends Mol Med 355– 362 Moir RD, Spann TP (2001) The structure and function of nuclear lamins: implications for disease. Cell Mol Life Sci 58: 1748–1757 Moreira ES, Wiltshire TJ, Faulkner G, et al (2000) Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2G is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the sarcomeric protein telethonin. Nat Genet 24: 163–166 Tsao CY, Mendell JR (1999) The childhood muscular dystrophies: making order out of chaos. Semin Neurol 19: 9–23 393 Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) Genetic testing NCV/EMG Laboratory Imaging Biopsy +++ ++ + + +++ Fig. OPMD with a promi- nent rimmed vacuole (small ar- row), and a mixture of atro- phied (large arrow) and hyper- trophied fibers with central nu- clei (arrow heads). Note promi- nent fiber splitting (upper left) In general OPMD effects the eyelids causing ptosis, the pharyngeal muscles, Distribution extraocular muscles, and to a lesser extent proximal limb muscles. The condition is very slowly progressive in most cases. Time course OPMD most often presents in the fourth to sixth decade most frequently with Onset/age ptosis. Autosomal dominant OPMD is more common in certain population groups: Clinical syndrome French Quebecois 1:1000, Bukhara Jews 1:600. The rarer autosomal recessive form is estimated to be much more rare. Patients hypercontract the frontalis muscle and retroflex the head so they have a characteristic looking up posture. Patients often have incomplete extraocular muscle paralysis and a superior field defect that disappears when the eyelids are elevated. Dysphagia and tongue weakness are other early symptoms and may result in repeated episodes of aspiration and may lead to aspiration pneumonia. Weakness in the limbs is usually mild, although it may vary, and usually affects proximal muscles with distal muscles later becoming weak in more severe cases. In rare autosomal recessive homozygotes there may be 394 disability due to proximal leg weakness. Mild neck weakness also occurs but seldom results in significant disability. In certain variants of the disease (Japa- nese variant) there may be evidence of cardiac conduction block.
Paralytic poliomyelitis Paralytic poliomyelitis develops in only 1–2% of infected patients quality lanoxin 0.25 mg pulse pressure ecg, anywhere from 4 days to 5 weeks following initial infection buy lanoxin 0.25 mg mastercard high pulse pressure young age. Factors believed to predis- pose a patient to paralytic disease include muscle damage from recent strenu- ous exercise or muscle injections, increased age, tonsillectomy, weakened B-cell function, and pregnancy. Acute paralytic poliomyelitis causes fatal respi- Fig. C Very often involve- ment of the lower limbs is asym- metric (om this case right calf is more atrophic than left) 449 ratory or cardiovascular problems in 5–10% of cases, or as high as 60% of cases with bulbar involvement. Encephalitic poliomyelitis is extremely rare and has a high mortality associated Encephalitic poliomyelitis with autonomic dysfunction. Patients present with confusion and agitation, which may progress to stupor and coma. Post-polio syndrome (PPS) occurs 10 years or longer after the initial polio Post-polio syndrome infection, and is characterized by slowly progressive, asymmetric increases in weakness and muscle atrophy (Fig. Patients may complain of joint and muscle pain, and fatigue. It is believed that surviving motor neurons that have reinnervated muscle fibers become incapa- ble of maintaining all the connections in their enlarged motor units, and begin to lose some connections. Some clinicians have suggested that excessive exercise aimed at keeping diseased muscles strong leads to this “burn-out”, but studies show that the primary associative factor for PPS is the severity of disease during the acute phase of the infection. PPS may lead to weakness in muscle groups previously thought to be unaffected, but typically these muscles were originally affected and the patient developed sufficient strength and adaptation to mask the deficits until the onset of PPS. Laboratory: Diagnosis Virus recovery from stool cultures during the first 2–3 weeks of disease is considered diagnostic for poliomyelitis. Virus may also be detected in throat washings, and occasionally from CSF or blood. Neutrophils, and then lymphocytes, may be found in the CSF prior to neurological impairment. Slight to severe protein elevation with normal glucose may be detected. EMG: Early on, there is decreased recruitment and interference, with decreased motor unit action potential amplitudes. In 2–4 weeks, fibrillations will develop, with possible fasciculations. Over time, reinnervation will lead to polyphasic motor units. Nerve conduction velocities and sensory studies are normal. Imaging: Inflammation of the anterior spinal cord may be detected with MRI. Post-polio syndrome: The diagnosis of PPS is by exclusion of other conditions and demonstration of progressive weakness over time. Encephalitis caused by echovirus or coxsackie virus Differential diagnosis Meningitis Guillain-Barre syndrome Motor polyneuropathies Acute transverse myelitis 450 Therapy Vaccination programs have tremendously decreased the incidence of poliomy- elitis in developed countries. However, rare cases are still reported in countries with good vaccine programs, frequently in isolated cultures that reject modern medical care. In countries without adequate vaccination, poliomyelitis is still common. Once a patient has poliomyelitis, the only treatment is supportive therapy. This includes physical therapy to prevent contractures and joint ankylosis, prosthet- ic devices, and respiratory/swallowing therapy to minimize pulmonary compli- cations like aspiration and atelectasis. Some clinicians recommend that pa- tients with PPS minimize their activity, but studies suggest that exercise is beneficial for PPS, too. Respiratory failure can be caused by central depression, weakness of the respiratory muscles, or other complications (pneumonia, edema, etc. Cardiovascular collapse may also occur from infection of the brainstem. These situations require intensive care with artificial ventilation. Prognosis During the acute phase of polio paralysis, the mortality rate is fairly low (5–10%). Patients requiring ventilation during this period usually recover over a period of several months, during which the respiratory muscles become reinnervated and hypertrophic.