By J. Wilson. New Mexico Highlands University. 2018.
Meeting the 60 minute/day physical activity recommendation 1mg anastrozole amex women's health issues research paper, however cheap 1 mg anastrozole amex menopause 1 year without period, offers additional benefits in reducing risk of chronic diseases, for example, by favorably altering blood lipid profiles, changing body composition by decreasing body fat and increasing muscle mass, or both (Eliakim et al. For instance, in a study of Harvard alumni, mortality rates for men walking on average less than 9 miles each week were 15 percent higher than in men walking more than 9 miles a week (Paffenbarger et al. Moreover, in the same study, men who took up vigorous sports activities lowered their risk of death by 23 percent compared to those who remained sedentary (Paffenbarger et al. Similar favorable effects were observed in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study as men in the lowest quintile of fitness who improved their fitness to a moderate level, reduced mortality risk by 44 percent, an extent comparable to that achieved by smoking cessation (Blair et al. Results from observational and experimental studies of humans and laboratory animals provide biologically plausible insights into the benefits of regular physical activity on the delayed progression of several chronic diseases. The interrelationships between physical activity and cancer, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and skeletal health are detailed in Chapter 3. Table 12-9 shows seven prospective studies that associated varying ranges of leisure time energy expenditure (kcal/day or kcal/week) with the risk of chronic diseases and/or associated mortality. Assuming an average of 150 kcal expended per 30 minutes of moderate physical activity (Leon et al. The required amount of physical activity depended on the endpoint being evaluated. The minimum amount of physical activity that provided a health benefit ranged from 15 to 60 minutes/day. The amount of physical activity that provided the lowest risk of morbidity and/or mortality was 60 to greater than 90 minutes/day. This recommendation is also consistent with Canada’s “Physical Activity Guide to Healthy Living” (Health Canada, 1998), and the World Health Organization technical report on obesity (2000). Specifically, recommendation number 3 in Chapter 2 of the Sur- geon General’s report states: “Recommendations from experts agree that for better health, physical activity should be performed regularly. The most recent recommendations advise people of all ages to include a minimum of 30 minutes of physical activity of moderate intensity (such as brisk walking) on most, if not all, days of the week. It is also acknowledged that for most people, greater health benefits can be obtained by engaging in physical activity of more vigorous intensity or of longer duration. Moreover, they showed that more vigorous exercise was associated with an increased degree of protection. Conversely, physical inactivity, noted by prolonged sitting, was shown to be a signifi- cant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Similarly, reporting on treadmill evaluations of over 6,000 men studied over a 6-year period, Myers and coworkers (2002) concluded that “exer- cise capacity is a more powerful predictor of mortality among men than other established risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The vast majority of review articles have concluded that acute or chronic aerobic exercise is related to favorable changes in anxiety, depression, stress reactivity, positive mood, self-esteem, and cogni- tive functioning (Anthony, 1991; Craft and Landers, 1998; Landers and Arent, 2001; Mutrie, 2000; North et al. Although one reviewer (Mutrie, 2000) has argued for a causal relationship between exercise and the reduction of clinical depression, others suggest that there are not enough clinical trial studies to support a causal interpretation (Landers and Arent, 2001). Examination of the meta- analyses indicates that the overall magnitude of the effect of exercise on anxiety, depression, stress reactivity, and cognitive functioning ranges from small to moderate, but in all cases, these effects are statistically significant (Landers and Arent, 2001). These results are encouraging, but there is still much to learn before the relationship between physical activity and mental health can be fully understood. Recent reviews on endorphins (Hoffman, 1997), serotonin (Chaouloff, 1997), and norepinephrine (Dishman, 1997) have provided experimental evidence for potential mechanisms by which exercise can produce calming effects and mood enhancements. In general, Vo2max is related to body muscle mass and is a relatively constant value for a given individual but it can be altered by various factors, particularly aerobic training, which will induce a change of 10 to 20 per- cent. Thus, on an absolute basis, bigger individuals tend to have a larger Vo2max (measured in liters of O2 consumed/minute) than do smaller individuals. Hence, for purposes of comparison, Vo2max is frequently con- sidered in terms of mL/kg/min. However, a heart disease patient of the same body size might be capable of only a Vo2max of 0. Lipid is the main energy source in muscle and at the whole-body level during rest and mild intensity activity (Brooks and Mercier, 1994). As intensity increases, a shift from the predominant use of lipid to carbo- hydrate occurs. Figure 12-7 describes this crossover concept and, as can be seen in the figure, the relative use of fat is greatest at relatively low exercise intensities, particularly when individuals are fasting. Training slightly increases the relative use of fat as the energy source during low to moderate exercise intensities, particularly in the fasted state.
A growing body of evidence has shown that macronutrients order 1 mg anastrozole with amex menstrual cycle day 1-4, particularly fats and car- bohydrate buy anastrozole 1 mg with visa menopause hot flashes relief, play a role in the risk of chronic diseases. Although various guidelines have been established that suggest a maximal intake level of fat and fatty acids (e. Further- more, because there may be factors other than diet that may contribute to chronic diseases, it is not possible to determine a defined level of intake at which chronic diseases may be prevented or may develop. If an individual consumes below or above this range, there is a potential for increasing the risk of chronic diseases shown to affect long-term health, as well as increasing the risk of insufficient intakes of essential nutrients. Conversely, interventional studies show that when fat intakes are high, many individuals gain additional weight. Furthermore, these ranges allow for sufficient intakes of essential nutrients, while keeping the intake of saturated fat at moderate levels. The upper boundary corresponds to the highest intakes from foods consumed by individuals in the United States and Canada. This maximal intake level is based on ensuring sufficient intakes of essential micronutrients that are, for the most part, present in relatively low amounts in foods and beverages that are major sources of added sugars in North American diets. When assessing nutrient intakes of groups, it is important to consider the variation in intake in the same individuals from day to day, as well as underreporting. Infants consuming formulas with the same nutrient composition as human milk are consuming an adequate amount after adjustments are made for differences in bioavailability. Highest priority is thus given to studies that address the following research topics: • long-term, dose–response studies to help identify the requirement of individual macronutrients that are essential in the diet (e. It is recognized that it is not possible to identify a defined intake level of fat for maintaining health and decreasing risk of disease; however, it is recognized that further information is needed to identify acceptable ranges of intake for fat, as well as for protein and carbohydrate that are based on prevention of chronic diseases and maintaining health; • studies to further understand the beneficial roles of Dietary and Functional Fibers in human health; • studies during pregnancy designed to determine protein and energy needs; • information on the form, frequency, intensity, and duration of exercise and physical activity that is successful in managing body weight in both children and adults; • long-term studies on the role of glycemic response in preventing chronic diseases, such as diabetes and coronary heart disease, in healthy individuals, and; • studies to investigate the levels at which adverse effects occur with chronic high intakes of specific macronutrients. For some nutrients, such as saturated fat and cholesterol, biochemical indicators of adverse effects can occur at very low intakes. Thus, more information is needed to ascer- tain defined levels of intakes at which onset of relevant health risks (e. A state- ment for health professionals from the Nutrition Committee, American Heart Association. This comprehensive effort is being undertaken by the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes of the Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, the National Academies, in collaboration with Health Canada. See Appendix B for a description of the overall process, its origins, and other relevant issues that developed as a result of this new process. Establishment of these reference values requires that a criterion of nutritional adequacy be carefully chosen for each nutrient, and that the population for whom these values apply be carefully defined. A requirement is defined as the lowest continuing intake level of a nutrient that, for a specific indicator of adequacy, will maintain a defined level of nutriture in an individual. The median and average would be the same if the distribution of requirements followed a symmetrical distribution and would diverge if a distribution were skewed. This is equivalent to saying that randomly chosen individuals from the population would have a 50:50 chance of having their requirement met at this intake level. The specific approaches, which are provided in Chapters 5 through 10, differ since each nutrient has its own indicator(s) of adequacy, and different amounts and types of data are available for each. That publication uses the term basal requirement to indicate the level of intake needed to prevent pathologically relevant and clinically detectable signs of a dietary inadequacy. The term normative requirement indicates the level of intake sufficient to maintain a desirable body store, or reserve. Its applicability also depends on the accuracy of the form of the requirement distribution and the estimate of the variance of requirements for the nutrient in the population subgroup for which it is developed. For many of the macronutrients, there are few direct data on the requirements of children. Where factorial modeling is used to estimate the distribution of a requirement from the distributions of the individual components of the requirement (maintenance and growth), as was done in the case of protein and amino acid recommendations for children, it is necessary to add (termed convolve) the individual distributions. Examples of defined nutritional states include normal growth, maintenance of normal circulating nutrient values, or other aspects of nutritional well-being or general health. The goal may be differ- ent for infants consuming infant formula for which the bioavailability of a nutrient may be different from that in human milk. In general, the values are intended to cover the needs of nearly all apparently healthy individuals in a life stage group.
Disciplining technology and those who create it to meet our needs is the ultimate task of leadership generic 1mg anastrozole menstrual impurity. To achieve the transformation in healthcare that society de- serves will require enlightened leadership—in the health professions and healthcare management and from government policymakers discount 1mg anastrozole menopause 2 periods in one month. It will also require a willingness on the part of healthcare practi- tioners and managers to understand and master the technologies themselves—to adapt them, play with them, and collaborate with those who create them—to make them easier to adopt and use. This book seeks to inspire a new generation of health- care professionals and managers to understand, master, and deploy these powerful new tools. Jeff Goldsmith May 2003 Preface xiii Acknowledgm ents Many people assisted in making this book possible. Neal Patterson, chairman and founder of Cerner Corporation, a pioneer- ing healthcare informatics ﬁrm, opened the door by inviting me to serve on Cerner’s board of directors. Gartner executives and analysts Jim Adams, Dave Garets (now of HealthLink), Janice Young, Thomas Handler, Wes Rishel, and Ken Kleinberg all contributed knowledge and ideas for this book. Christine Malcolm, formerly of Computer Sci- ences Corporation, now of Rush-Presybterian–St. On the hospital side, John Glaser, chief information ofﬁcer at Partners HealthCare in Boston; David Blumenthal, director at the Institute for Health Policy and Physician at The Massachusetts Gen- eral Hospital/Partners HealthCare System; and Michael Koetting, vice president of planning at the University of Chicago Hospitals, were kind enough to read the manuscript and offer valuable advice on how to make it clearer, sharper, and more relevant. By happy coincidence, the University of Virginia is a hotbed of medical informatics activity and thought. Several Charlottesville colleagues helped early in the process to shape the book’s premise and focus on physicians. Robin Felder, professor of pathology and director of the University of Virginia’s Medical Automation Re- search Center, helped me understand the rapid advances in remote sensing technology and their future role in preventive health. On the scientiﬁc front, a fellow Cerner board member, William Neaves, president of the Stowers Institute; Paul Berg, professor emeritus of Stanford University; and George Poste, former chief scientiﬁc ofﬁcer of Smith Kline Beecham, helped shed light on ad- vances in genetic diagnosis. Steven Burrill of Burrill and Company, a biotechnology investment bank, has produced superb analyses of the role of information technology in advancing genetic diagnosis and therapy. Finally, Anita Gupta ably assisted in the research on this book and the editing and preparation of this manuscript. Audrey Kaufman and Joyce Sherman of Health Administration Press provided valuable editorial comments and guidance. On his home page, in a special medical alert window, he found a reminder message from his physician, Dr. David, a 46-year-old computer software engineer, was in radiantly good health and had not seen his physician in 11 months. The reminder was part of a subscription agreement he had negotiated with her last year and was sent him automatically by Dr. Part of this agreement was a schedule of periodic monitoring of his health based on his genetic risk proﬁle of potential health risks, including periodic blood tests. David did not need to leave his chair to have his blood analyzed; he simply placed his foreﬁnger on a special touchpad attached to his ofﬁce computer. A tiny laser beam in the touchpad scanned the blood particles passing through a capillary in his ﬁnger and digitally scanned his blood. The stream of digital information from David’s ﬁnger was in- stantly transmitted to the clinical laboratory in Dr. Kumar’s hos- pital, Springﬁeld Memorial, through David’s broadband Internet connection. The identiﬁcation and routing of his bloodwork was preset by the hospital’s computer system. This and all of David’s xvii other medical information was protected by an elaborate security system designed to shield both the sample and test results from scrutiny by anyone except David and his doctors. In the hospital’s laboratory, a sophisticated image recognition software program automatically read the image of David’s blood, counting and categorizing the different blood cells and comparing them to a visual template of normal blood. Kumar received her alert while she was eating breakfast at home and called David to ask if she could drop by to talk with him on her way to the ofﬁce.
The n-3 fatty acids cannot be formed from saturated anastrozole 1mg low cost menstruation in the middle ages, n-9 monounsaturated buy generic anastrozole 1 mg line pregnancy 7 weeks 2 days, or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. This results in changes in the balance of eicosanoids synthesized from the n-6 and n-3 fatty acids. Small amounts of n-3 fatty acids are lost during sloughing of skin and other epithelial cells. As with other fatty acids, the coefficient of absorption of elaidic acid (18:1t) is about 95 percent (Emken, 1979). Studies in humans using pure triacylglycerols containing deuterated cis and trans octadecenoic acid isomers varying in melting point and double bond position suggest that the presence of trans double bonds in the fatty acyl chain has no measurable effect on efficiency of absorption (Emken, 1979, 1984). Trans fatty acids are transported similarly to other dietary fatty acids and are distributed within the cholesteryl ester, triacylglycerol, and phospholipid fractions of lipoproteins (Vidgren et al. Platelet lipids also contain trans fatty acids and their composition reflects trans fatty acid intake, as do other tissues (except the brain) (Mensink and Hornstra, 1995). Many animal and in vitro studies, however, have involved much higher amounts of trans than all-cis polyunsaturated fatty acids (Hwang et al. Other animal studies have suggested that the deleterious effects seen with high intakes of trans fatty acid do not occur with amounts comparable to those consumed in a normal human diet containing sufficient amounts of linoleic acid (Bruckner et al. Available animal and human data indicate that adipose tissue trans fatty acid content reflects the content of the diet and that selective accu- mulation does not occur (Emken, 1984). More recent attention has been focused on validating the use of adipose trans fatty acid content as a mea- sure of long-term dietary intake. In a study of Canadian individuals, Chen and colleagues (1995b) reported that adipose tissue trans fatty acid pat- terns, particularly those isomers found in partially hydrogenated vegetable fat, reflected dietary sources. Garland and coworkers (1998) also reported that adipose tissue trans fatty acid patterns correlated with intake and noted a stronger relationship with the isomers found in vegetable fat rather than animal fat. The authors cautioned that the later conclusion may have been due to the smaller between-person variability with animal versus vegetable trans fatty acid intake. Two groups have used adipose tissue trans fatty acid to corroborate dietary trans fatty acid intake derived from food frequency questionnaires and found a strong relationship (Lemaitre et al. Despite these observations, it should be noted that adipose tissue trans fatty acid profiles can be confounded by the retention of intermediate products of β-oxidation (Emken, 1995). If intakes of fat, along with carbohydrate and protein, are inadequate to meet energy needs, the individual will be in negative energy balance. Depending on the severity and duration, this may lead to malnutrition or starvation. In some populations, fat intakes are very low and body weight and health are maintained by high intakes of carbohydrate (Bunker et al. Clearly, humans have the ability to adapt metabolically to a wide spectrum of fat-to-carbohydrate intake ratios. In the short term, an isocaloric diet can be either very high or very low in fat with no obvious differences in health. The critical ques- tion therefore is, Are there optimal fat-to-carbohydrate ratios for long- term health, and if so, what are they? One potential concern over fat restriction is the potential for reduction in total energy intake, which is of particular relevance for infants and children, as well as during pregnancy when there is a relatively high energy requirement for both energy expen- diture and for fetal development. These changes include a reduction in high density lipoprotein cholesterol con- centration, an increase in serum triacylglycerol concentration, and higher responses in postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations. In fact, some popula- tions that consume low fat diets and in which habitual energy intake is relatively high have a low prevalence of these chronic diseases (Falase et al. Conversely, in sedentary popu- lations, such as that of the United States where overweight and obesity are common, high carbohydrate, low fat diets induce changes in lipoprotein and glucose/insulin metabolism in ways that could raise risk for chronic diseases (see Chapter 11). Available prospective studies have not concluded whether low fat, high carbohydrate diets provide a health risk in the North American population. Chronic nonspecific diarrhea in children has been suggested as a potential adverse effect of low fat diets. It is considered a disorder of intes- tinal motility that may improve with an increase in dietary fat intake in order to slow gastric emptying and alter intestinal motility (Cohen et al.
When classifying variables by function we want to know what the variable does in the experiment generic anastrozole 1 mg with amex menstrual migraines. The independent variable is under the con- trol of or can be manipulated by the investigator anastrozole 1mg online women's health upper east side. Generally this is the cause we 67 68 Essential Evidence-Based Medicine are interested in, such as a drug, a treatment, a risk factor, or a diagnostic test. The dependent variable changes as a result of or as an effect of the action of the independent variable. It is usually the outcome of exposure to the treatment or risk factor, or the presence of a particular diagnosis. We want to ﬁnd out if chang- ing the independent variable will produce a change in the dependent variable. The nature of each variable should be evident from the study design or there is a serious problem in the way the study was conducted. When classifying variables by their nature, we mean the hierarchy that describes the mathematical characteristics of the value generated for that vari- able. The choice of variables becomes very important in the application of statis- tical tests to the data. One can assign a number to each of these categories, but it would have no intrinsic signiﬁcance and cannot be used to compare one piece of the data set to another. Exam- ples of nominal data are classiﬁcation of physicians by specialty or of patients by the type of cancer from which they suffer. There is no relationship between the various types of specialty physicians except that they are all physicians and went to medical school. Ordinal data are nominal data for which the order of the variables has impor- tance and intrinsic meaning. Typical examples of ordinal data include certain pain scores that are measured by scales called Likert scales, severity of injury scores as reﬂected in a score such as the Trauma Score where lower numbers are pre- dictive of worse survival than higher ones, or the grading and staging of a tumor where higher number stages are worse than lower ones. Common questionnaires asking the participant to state whether they agree, are neutral, or disagree with a statement are also examples of an ordinal scale. Although there is a directional value to each of these answers, there is no numerical or mathematical relation- ship between them. Interval data are ordinal data for which the interval between each number is also a meaningful real number. However, interval data have only an arbitrary zero point and, therefore, there is no proportionality ratio relationship between two points. One example is temperature in degrees Celsius where 64◦Cis32 C hotter◦ than 32◦C but not twice as hot. This makes the results take on meaning for both absolute and relative changes in the vari- able. Examples of ratio variables are the temperature in degrees Kelvin where 100◦ Kelvin is 50◦K hotter than 50◦K and is twice as hot, age where a 10-year- old is twice as old as a 5-year-old, and common biological measurements such Instruments and measurements: precision and validity 69 as pulse, blood pressure, respiratory rate, blood chemistry measurements, and weight. This is called the number of signiﬁcant places, which is taught in high school and college, although it is often forgotten by students quickly thereafter. Height is an example of a continuous measure since a person can be 172 cm or 173 cm or 172. For exam- ple, a piano is an instrument with only discrete values in that there are only 88 keys, therefore, only 88 possible notes. Scoring systems like the Glasgow Coma Score for measuring neurological deﬁcits, the Likert scales mentioned above, and other ordinal scales contain only discrete variables and mathematically can have only integer values. We commonly use dichotomous data to describe binomial outcomes, which are those variables that can have only two possible values. Obvious examples are alive or dead, yes or no, normal or abnormal, and better or worse. This has the effect of dichotomizing the value of the serum sodium into either hypernatremic or not hypernatremic. Measurement in clinical research All natural phenomena can be measured, but it is important to realize that errors may occur in the process. Random error leads to a lack of precision due to the innate variability of the biological or sociological system being studied.