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On April 14 quality 60 ml rumalaya liniment muscle relaxant radiolab, 1998 buy rumalaya liniment 60 ml low price spasms near gall bladder, the research commission announced the ®rst temporary report (17). In it, statistical results and a simple guideline were given, but scienti®c and substantial causes were not su½ciently clari®ed. The report indicated that the blight ¯ashing lights that alternatively change between red and blue at a period of about 10 Hz used in Pokemon may have induced light epilepsy. Because Pokemon is based on a video game produced by a big manufacturer, it is important to ascertain whether video game machines or VR equipment may have bad e¨ects on humans. Hence, the mental and physical e¨ects of VR on the human must be fully investigated from various 178 MEDICAL APPLICATIONS OF VIRTUAL REALITY IN JAPAN viewpoints, such as medicine, physiology, psychology, and ergonomics. The fourth purpose of the Important-Territorial Research Project Fundamental Studies on Virtual Reality was introduced to cope with such anxiety. Independent of this project, the ``Feasibility Study on Development of Synthetic Systems for Evaluating E¨ects of Three Dimensional Image on the Human' was begun on September 18, 1996, by Electronic Industries Associa- tion of Japan (18) entrusted by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Machine Industry. The project team consists of about 40 researchers from universities, hospitals, and companies and aims at developing new measurement systems for examining and evaluating bioe¨ects of 3-D images found in VR, stereo TV, video game machines, etc. The group published an interim report (19) and will give public guidelines for industrial products using 3-D images in the ®nal report. They measured heart rate variability, blood pressure variability, and sympa- thetic nerve activity of healthy test subjects who watched a video tape of a roller coaster scene or calm scene with the HMD or on an ordinary TV set. The ratio of the low-frequency component to the high-frequency component included in the power spectrum density, Lyapunov exponent, and fractal dimensions were extracted from these data. On the basis of these physiologic indexes, the e¨ect of long-term wearing of HMD and di¨erences among the kinds of watching devices and content of the videotape were discussed (Fig. However, it has not yet been concluded that these physiologic indexes are useful enough to give an exact guideline for protecting the human health, because the problems of individual di¨erences and reappearance have not yet been solved. For example, it could be ascertained that Pokemon produced 700 patients with serious convulsions. However, its occurrence is probability only 1/5,000 because the number of viewers who were watching Pokemon simulta- neously was no less than 3,500,000. To cope with such problems, it is urgently necessary to ®nd or develop novel and e¨ective measurements, methods of analysis, or experimental protocols. This is because it will be utterly unaccept- able to gather test subjects beyond 5,000 if the occurrence probability of the corresponding phenomenon is similar to Pokemon. Ohsuga at Mitsubishi and Oyama at the National Cancer Center have developed a new machine for psy- chotherapy using VR in the hospital (the Bedside Wellness System) (21, 22) (Fig. The purpose of the psychotherapeutic machine is to provide patients with emotional support and to encourage them to enjoy an active life in a vir- tual space when facing a serious disease such as cancer. This is because patients with an active lifestyle survive longer than those with a passive lifestyle. E¨ects of di¨erent contents (rest with eyes closed, calm scene, and roller coaster scene) of videotape watched with a HMD by 15 healthy volunteer subjects (20). This implies that mental excitement induced by the roller coaster scene may have been represented as larger time variance of the LF/HF ratio re¯ected by autonomic nerve activity. The patient can walk through the forest by working a pair of pedals set in the machine and watch photographs synchronized with his or her walking pace. The photographs are displayed on three liquid-crystal screens with a wide visual ®eld of 100. The presentation includes not only a visual scene but also a fresh wind carrying the smell of the forest and the sounds of small birds, a brook, and trees. In the future, it is expected that the system will be expanded for use over a network so that two or more people can meet and chat while basking in a forest. Takeda at the Nagasaki Institute of Applied Science developed a virtual training environment using VR technology with audiovisual images and force- feedback capability (Fig. In this system, the trainee wears a HMD and a force display used to apply force to the upper extremity.
See Family genogram individual therapy case study cheap 60 ml rumalaya liniment visa muscle relaxant knots, directive 230–241 Goethe cheap rumalaya liniment 60 ml with visa muscle relaxant breastfeeding, Johann Wolfgang von, Fairy tales, 87–93 168 individual therapy case study, Goodenough, Florence, 14, 104 230–241 "Grandmother Marta," 90 Falling ﬁgures, 308. See also Struc- analysis tural analysis Familial history, interpretations Group therapy, 242–245 and, 47 intellectualization and, 21–25 Family genogram directive, 193, training, 8 194 See also Directives, group therapy Family Mural Drawing, 276, 277, Gun, 308. See also Formal DAP and, 119 analysis empathy and, 265 Formal analysis, 108 HTP and, 130 338 Index HTP and, 130 condensation and, 31 regression and, 39 directives and, 179–180 Handbook of Projective Techniques, feelings expression, 184 105 individual therapy case study, Hands, 304–306. See also For- Intellectualization, 21–25, 30 mal analysis DAP and, Bipolar disorder and, Hangover Paradox, 216 119 "Hansel and Grethel," 90–91 family therapy and, 294 Hat, 308. See also tives, family therapy; Direc- Directives, group therapy tives, group therapy "Hey Diddle, Diddle," 88 Interpretation, art, 103–111, "Hickory, Dickory, Dock," 88 165–169. See also speciﬁc Homicidal ideation, 229–241 assessments House-Tree-Person (HTP), 14, 47– Interview, prior to art assessment, 48, 103, 110, 125–130, 208 117 art assessments, 143 case illustrations, 143–150 Joints, 307. See also Formal analysis development of, 104 Jung, Carl, 5 examples, 130–142 Junge, Maxine, 176 House-Tree-Person Technique, 128 "Humpty Dumpty," 88 Kahlo, Frida, 13, 167, 168 Kinetic-Family-Drawing (KFD), Identiﬁcation, 19, 63 104, 106 projective, 280 Kinetic-House-Tree-Person, 104 reciprocal, 257 Knothole, 314. See also Formal Imitation, 63 analysis Individual therapy, 201–203 Kwiatkowska, Hanna, 275 case studies clinical backgrounds, 203–206, Landgarten, Helen, 284 216–221, 229–231 Left side emphasis, 299. See also sessions, 206–216, 221–228, Structural analysis 231–241 Legends, 89, 9 group vs. See also Formal Initial game, 182–183 analysis Institutionalization, 52 Libido, 71 339 Index Line quality, 297–298 group, 23–24 tree, 312–313 (see also Formal Mutuality: analysis) empathy and, 260 See also Structural analysis here-and-now interaction and, Lips, 303. See also Formal 257 analysis Myths, 89, 92, 93 individual therapy case study, Machover, Karen, 14, 116–117, 230–241 143 Mahler, Margaret, 52 National Institute of Mental Major Depressive Disorder, HTP Health, 275 and, 139 Naumburg, Margaret, 202 Masculinity identiﬁcation, 105 Neck, 304. See also Formal analysis Masks, art therapy and, 6–8 Neglect, individual therapy case Measurement of Intelligence by study and, 229–241 Drawings, 104 A New Approach to Figure Drawing, Media choice: 151 directives and, 174 Non-Verbal Family Art Task, 276– See also speciﬁc type 278 Medical history, interpreting art Nose, 303. See also Formal analysis and, 47 Note taking, 118 Memory box, 176–177 Nursery rhymes, 88 Mental retardation, empathy and, 257 Object constancy, 52 Metaphor, developing the language Obsessive traits, intellectualization of, 10–15 and, 21 Minimization, 119 Oedipus complex, 73, 79, 84 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality 8CRT and, 163–164, 166, 167 Inventory (MMPI), 105 Omission of body parts, 308. See also Formal Organicity, 48, 49 analysis Mother Goose, 87 Pagan and Christian Creeds: Their Mouth, 303. See also Formal anal- Origin and Meaning, 5 ysis Painting, 50–51 Multiple Personality Disorder Parentiﬁed child, 25 (MPD), 166 Partial ﬁgure person, 201. See also Mural drawing: Formal analysis family, 13, 276, 277, 283–285, Pass-around assignment, 185–186 289–295 empathy and, 258–260 340 Index here-and-now interaction and, Proportion, 296. See also Structural 250–251 analysis Pathological weighting, 151 Prototype, 72 Peer-to-peer interaction. See The Psychopathology of Everyday Group therapy Life, 107 Perceptual disturbances, 9 Psychosexual development, 71–76, Personality Projections in the Draw- 85–86 ing of the Human Figure, 117 anal phase, 72–73, 173–174 Personality traits, defenses and, genital phase, 75, 136 21, 45 latency phase, 75, 80, 98 Perspective, 309. See also Formal oral phase, 72 analysis phallic phase, 73–75 Pervasive Developmental Dis- Psychosocial personality develop- order, 84 ment, 77, 171–175, 178, 189 empathy and, 257 autonomy vs. See also Formal Presenting problem, interpreting analysis art and, 47 Primordial images, 5 Quadrant of regression. See Regres- Projection, 19 sion, quadrant of Projective drawing, 14 Qualitative analysis. See Formal Projective identiﬁcation, 280 analysis Projective testing, 103, 106–111. See also Formal Sexual abuse, 4, 11 analysis 8CRT and, 158 Rapprochement, 52 conversion and, 25–30, 45–46 Reaction formation, 27, 72, 73, 75 individual therapy case study, 203 Redrawing, 300. See also Structural regression and, 42–43 analysis Sexualized symbols, 40–42 Regression, quadrant of, 110–111 Shading, 298 Reich, Wilhelm, 45 body parts, 308 (see also Formal Reinforcement of body parts, 308. See also For- latency phase and, 75 mal analysis repetition and, 107 Shoulders, 304. See also Formal analysis Size, 296 Rorschach test, 105, 136 gender and, 299 Rubin, Jay, 19 tree, 312 (see also Formal Rumination, 9 analysis) See also Structural analysis Schemata, 54, 60 Smiley face, 308. See also Formal Schizophrenia, 12, 13 analysis collecting and, 95–96 Social history, interpreting art and, developmental stages and, 49–50 47 directives and, 173 Stick man, 307. See also Formal four stages of progression, 98 analysis here-and-now interaction and, Storytelling, mutual, 8 249 individual therapy case study, paranoid, individual therapy case 230–241 study, 216–228 Structural analysis, 108 regression and, 38–43, 46–47 8CRT and, 151, 153–156, 161– Self-disclosure.